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By August 19, 2022essay代写




In the first chapter the research identified the aim and objectives of the study as well as the relevance and the general background in which the study is taking place. The chapter ended with the information on how the study is structured. In this chapter the research discusses the different forms of secondary literature that has been gathered for this study. This is because the research has been designed to premise its findings on an analysis both secondary and primary data.

Economic Growth and Human Development经济增长和人类发展

Discussions relating to economic growth and economic development of a people is perhaps the most widely written or widely spoken about subject in the last three decades. The importance of the subject consists in the fact that almost every sphere of human development has some need for development. In his apostolic encyclical ‘Popularium Progressio’, a Latin word which means ‘The progress of people” the Roman Catholic Pontiff His Holiness Pope Paul VI was emphatic in asserting that the value of man consist of the extent to which he has been able to utilize his resources to the best of his ability by deriving the maximum benefit possible from it. In that letter which is consider to be the first of a Catholic prelate to be written to as he puts it “all men of goodwill” the head of the Vatican retorted that development was another word for peace.讨论有关对经济增长和经济发展的一个人也许是最广泛的书面或广泛使用,在过去三十年的主题。标的的重要性的事实,几乎每一个人类发展的领域有一定的发展需要。

Deardorff (2009) has discussed this section of development by underscoring the fact that evidence he has gathered from unstable spots in parts of Africa suggest that most of the underlining issues that creates instability were the results lack of development. In the work of Backhaus (2003) his focus was in examining what really constituted economic development and how it directly affect human development. In doing this he examined the work of Karl Marx that seems to suggest that the economy was the most important part of every human endeavour and for that matter the extent to which there is growth and stability in the economy was a direct reflection of the level of development of the people who are within a particular area. He specifically distinguishes between economic growth and economic development and the different way the two issues affect human development.迪尔朵夫(2009)讨论了这一部分的发展,强调的事实,证据,他已聚集在非洲部分地区的不稳定点建议,大多数的下划线问题,造成不稳定的结果缺乏发展。他明确区分经济增长和经济发展两个问题不同的方式影响人类发展。

According to Cameroun (2005) economic development is a reference to advances or progress that is made socially and technologically to affect the way and manner goods and services are produced even though changes that are made in terms of increases in production of goods and services using old method of production on a wider scale is also a form of economic development. According to him economic growth on the other hand refers to only increases in quantitative output which may or may not constitute development. This he asserts is measured by the rate of change of gross domestic products.据喀麦隆(2005年)经济发展是一个参考的进步或进步,社会和技术影响的途径和方式货物和服务的生产,即使生产的商品和服务,使用旧上涨所做的更改更大规模的生产方法也是经济发展的一种形式。根据他的经济增长,另一方面是指只定量输出的增加,这可能会或可能不会构成发展。他声称这是衡量国内生产总值变化率。

Schumpeter (2003)on the other hand has also explained that while economic development typically involves an improvement in a variety of indicators which include the rate of literacy, the rate of life expectancy and the rate of poverty the growth in the economy does not take into account other aspects such as leisure time environmental quality, freedom and social justice. By this revelation Deardorff (2009) is of the view that whiles a nation or a group of person pursues economic growth it is important for them to acknowledge that economic growth that does not constitute development is meaningless and hence prefers an effort of economic growth that integrates a wide range of other issues in order to achieve economic development.熊彼特(2003),另一方面也说明,虽然经济发展通常涉及的各种指标,包括识字率,平均寿命率和贫困率有所改善,经济增长并没有考虑到其他方面,如休闲时间环境质量,自由和社会正义。由这揭示迪尔朵夫(2009年)是一个国家或一群人追求经济增长消遣认为重要的是,他们承认,经济增长并不构成发展是没有意义的,因此更喜欢经济增长,整合的努力广泛等问题,以实现经济发展。

Schumpeter (2003) has also examined the issue of economic growth and economic development from the dependency theorist perspective. He opens his study by asking whether growth in people’s economic wellbeing is a measure of the extent of development of the people. In that study he was emphatic that the reasons why many poor communities or countries may experience some level of economic growth without a corresponding economic development. This he argues is because evidence he has gathered from parts of central Asia gives credence to the view that in most cases the communities only function as resource providers to wealthy industrialized countries. However Cameroun (2005) insists that economic growth has a direct reflection on the level of economic development to the extent that resources that are accumulated from increases in income are also used to make advances in the health and educational sectors. But the most important issues to him are in relation to the role of economic development and economic growth in human development.熊彼特(2003)亦研究了经济增长和经济发展从依赖理论家的角度来看问题。他打开他的研究,询问是否增长,人们的经济福祉的人的发展的程度是衡量。

It has been suggested that if economic growth does not necessarily lead to economic development then to what extent are advances in economic growth and economic development affects human development. In the work of Ranis et al (2000) they were certain that economic growth and human development have a two way relationship. They further suggest that the first chain consist of economic growth which benefits human development as results of growth in Gross National Product. In this sense he is of the view that while there is an increase in the Gross National Income there is a corresponding increase in the human development factors such as expenditure from families, government and organizations such as non-governmental organizations. He also emphasizes that economic growth is largely responsible for likely increases in the expenditure of families and individuals due to the increases in income which leads to human development. Further, with the increased in expenditures, health, education tend to increases in the country and later will contribute to economic growth.有人曾建议,如果经济增长并不必然导致经济发展到什么程度是在经济增长和经济发展的影响人类发展的进步。拉尼斯等人(2000)的工作,他们肯定的是,经济增长和人类发展有一个双向的关系。他们进一步指出,第一链由经济增长,有利于人的发展作为国民生产总值增长的结果。从这个意义上说,他认为,同时有一个国民总收入的增加,是人类发展的因素,如家庭,政府和非政府组织等组织的开支相应增加。他还强调,经济增长是主要负责家庭和个人收入的增加,从而导致人类发展的开支可能增加。此外,增加的支出,医疗卫生,教育往往在全国增加,以后将促进经济增长。


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