英国essay指导-英国城市固体废弃物管理与处理In recent years, the British garbage legislation perfect management, perfect management mode, formulated development planning, determine the management strategy, steady rise of British garbage legislation and the comprehensive management level. Especially in the waste which the British waste s garbage processing strategic shift.
1 waste management legislation and policy
Britain has formulated a series of waste management regulations, including 1974 years of pollution control laws in 1989, the pollution control method (amendment) in 1990, the environmental protection, the 1991 controllable waste management regulations, 1994 years of waste license management regulations (fixed) in 1996, the special waste management regulations in 1997, the producer responsibility obligations (packaging waste) management regulations in 1998, the packaging waste management regulations, 1998 years of waste reduction method, 1999 years of pollution prevention law in 2003, the family life waste recycling laws, etc. These laws and regulations promulgated for implementation of the British waste management and disposal conditions improve.
英国essay指导-英国城市固体废弃物管理与处理British city solid waste management and treatment
Abstract: the article introduces the city of solid waste management legislation, management policy and rubbish recycling policy, and analyzes in Britain to promote garbage waste treatment strategies to recycling and recycling of the transfer of the methods and main processing mode.
Key words: the British; Rubbish; processing
In recent years, the British solid waste management policy mainly around to avoid, and waste reduction and recycling of resources on. Britain’s environment minister of the waste management work mainly reflects in:
(1) waste management rules and regulations and permit system. Permit system initially focused on the waste disposal, since the European Union issued waste management framework law, permit system also includes waste storage, processing and recycling. In 1994 the British through the waste management permit regulations, began to implement a "waste management permit system regulation".
(2) "hot spots" waste management. "Hot spots" waste management including: industrial and commercial waste, agricultural waste, life eventually period of cars and refrigerator, burning debris and fly ash, landfill and packaging waste, etc.
(3) "controlled" of waste. The management of environment by waste called "control of the waste, including family, industrial and commercial produce waste and other waste called" the control "of the rubbish, such as agriculture, mining and and mining industry of waste.
(4) waste across the border to transfer management. Britain’s environment minister is England and wales waste of the transfer of the border authorities, any waste from British import and export must apply for permission to the environment, and a financial bear and design insurance. Britain’s environment minister for how to formulate detailed border of waste transfer regulations and procedures. In fact, British solid waste both safe and effective management legislation by the demand to promote waste, was also inherit the international obligations especially executive eu instructions and the promotion of the request.
2 waste treatment condition analysis according to the statistics, the British households produce 28.2 million tons a year on average life rubbish, including courtyard and kitchen waste garbage, waste paper accounts for more than half. In order to reduce the amount of garbage, from early 2006, the local government in Britain began their management region garbage output control measures, aims to encourage the public to the classification of garbage collection, especially the classified collection usage, so that garbage collection and recycling utilization. In the treatment of the way the choice, Britain has been to the waste landfill give priority to, its waste landfill is as high as 80%. According to the European Union new garbage treatment provisions, British established waste treatment sequence: waste for maximum reduction, recycling and recycle, make renewable resources to get maximum recycling, and then through the waste incineration power generation and biological system can realize the energy measures such as waste recycling, finally no use value of the waste disposal, formed by avoiding, reduction, recovery and recycling, treatment and final disposal of the integrity of the waste comprehensive management system.
Waste of energy and promote Britain a waste treatment method. The UK plans in the near future construction 100 junk system can factory, to increase the utilization rate of waste system can. The rubbish system can not only will become facility projects the government the most favourable loan programs, but also to promote British waste incineration YingYongLv processing.
According to the requirements of the eu landfill guideline, in 2005 the British also issued a biodegradable waste landfill asked. The law specifically limit landfill biodegradable waste, and formulated the points lower stage biodegradable waste landfill plan. According to the requirements of the eu landfill guideline, in 2010 the British to landfills biodegradable waste must to 1995 years to the biodegradable waste landfill 75% of the total, 2013 will fall to 50% in 2020, to 35%. This reflects not only the British government is from garbage disposal to waste resources management strategic shift, and the British government execute the eu rules and regulations relevant measures. In order to achieve the goal of biodegradable waste management, Britain must be strictly implemented the European Union both life waste landfill directive, but must take effective biodegradable waste reduction measures.
At present, all over Britain importance steadily promoting the recycling of waste, such as Scotland and other regions in recent dial out special fund sort the garbage collection and implementation of the waste recycling utilization projects. The British government is also perfect the electronics garbage and other harmful restrictions garbage into the landfill management regulations, will change life waste incineration procedure. Waste management concept of change, make across the country pay more attention to the use of domestic waste composting technology and use it as an important way of using renewable resources. Estimates that by 2020, the British life in logistics biodegradable waste landfill garbage separation rate will reach 80%. Britain now has many county, such as: wigan, Windsor, mei redd, bloom up Buddha and fill in more special grade recycle biodegradable waste has made significant achievements, the county’s biodegradable waste recovery and utilization of annual output reached 45%.
Britain since 2005, has implemented a waste reduction and recycling new planning, in the plan was put forward by reducing waste and recycling periodic goal of, its core is to broaden the wastes material market for waste and regeneration removing all the obstacles, especially for waste building materials, glass, organic waste, paper, plastic and metal formulated the resources recycling target.
According to the statistics, the only 9% of British family recycle trash, the family of 8% recycling energy. British formulated to 2010 household waste recycling or composting at least in 2015 and 35% to 33% of the waste management strategic objectives. In order to ensure that reach goals, the British government in England for the local government of wastes established some legal standards, local governments need to reuse and compost in taken some important steps to meet these new legal standards, and encouraging residents to avoid and reduce life rubbish, actively participate in activities of wastes recovery plan.
3 the garbage collector and recovery in recent years, the British government vigorously carry out the garbage collection, classification life removed and classification disposal, especially advocate the source of life rubbish in the classified collection. In avoiding and limited life under the guidance of the principle of the waste produce, and take some measures to promote the life of garbage reduction. In January 2005, Britain began to carry out the relevant new garbage tax policy, implement this new policy, use a brand new kind of garbage collection system, this system including equipped with computer chips and electronic scales of trash can, when using, residents need to insert special IC card. Monthly garbage tax collection, jointly with the municipal department staff to houses, with special card reader to read the data on the IC card, the garbage tax collection. And the job match, the local government has set up the waste materials collection points, to receive residents handed in by the recycling thing.
In Britain the waste recycle more and more be all aspects of attention. In 2000 in England and wales residents living garbage recovery rate is only 6%, Scotland is only 5.8%. But from 2001 to 2005 study 25 JIENENGYUHUANBAO2010. No. 5 • monthly energy conservation and environmental protection in British family life garbage collection again is growing the utilization rate of 1 times. In 2005 the British family life garbage collection utilization rate reached 23% again. But, according to the European commission’s law, to the 2010 British family life garbage collection utilization rate again must achieve 30% just accord with the European Union standards. Therefore, Britain’s environment minister required local governments at all levels in the next three years by 1 times where the trash, and strive to make life rubbish in 2010 recovery rate increased from 30% to.
British waste management department released in 2003, in 2001 the British solid waste collection quantity is 28.2 million tons, was 2.7% higher than in 2000, the city solid waste landfill of 22.1 million tons, 2% down from 2000, family life waste recycling rate is 11%, was 4% higher than in 1997, family life garbage collection rate was 51%, was 3% higher than in 2000. In 2005 the British recycling for 33% of the waste packaging, have 3.5 trillion only a glass bottle, plastic bottles, only 1 trillion only 4.5 trillion aluminium cans be recycled. The current British use of packaging nearly half were recycled.#p#分页标题#e#
In order to promote recycling, Britain has also established waste recycling site. The web site includes the British domestic all waste recovery of the network are the most reliable and authoritative information, can let visitors in the online database to find the nearest waste collection points and recycling types and the matters needing attention. At the same time, the site also provides for the visitors each residential point distribution waste recovery detailed map. In April, 2004, southeast England also established a recycling site that the southeast England into: Kent and Sussex, surrey and hampshire four regions, there has to be a comprehensive waste collection points, each stand below again into 21 garbage resources recycling service networks. Web site’s purpose is to help enterprise in waste source reduce trash output and increase enterprise benefits, and to establish the best garbage classification recycling model provides guidance. Web site includes standard machinery, supplier address book, waste and experts in case study exchange E-mail on various waste treatment solutions, etc. Britain’s the two waste resources management on the web by sustainable development business management group found, the fund is mainly comes from landfill taxes, total amount is 550000 pounds.
2004 ~ 2005 year, Britain’s environment minister for the local government serves the recycling waste money 40 million pounds, before this, Britain’s environment minister has from the state waste reduction and recycle funds for local government funding of 43.3 million pounds, in order to reduce the local government of the waste recycling industry input funds needed for the pressure. Since 2002, the local government’s environment minister, for a total of waste recycling project funding 223.8 million pounds. These funds are or will be for the local authorities roadside waste classification collection, life waste treatment and reuse, compost and the infrastructure to provide effective support and protection. So far, Britain have 51 large waste recycling project in the successful operation. In these to encourage and support the policy of expanding, Britain waste recycling obvious change, the local authorities still can use the money updating life rubbish recycling facilities and expand the size of the family life waste composting.
According to Britain’s environment minister statistics, 2002 ~ 2006, British families living garbage collection and recycling and utilization rate doubled, from 11.2% to 22.7%. Britain’s environment minister also according to each region of the different conditions, for all regions of different set of recycling waste targets, and the establishment of the national "organic waste landfill trading system", set the local government of the upper limit of amount of organic waste landfill, some areas, such as more than other regions must be bought by not exceed quotas. At the same time, the central government has for the local government to provide fund to encourage local government establish waste recycling program. In this encourages the policy of expanding, Britain Scotland area waste recovery and utilization rate 英国essay指导-英国城市固体废弃物管理与处理rose to 28%, a 7% increase over 2005 (2005 years again for recycling utilization rate 21%), but still far lower than some other eu countries level.
4 garbage compost according to statistics, British families living garbage can compost in the garbage composition 35% ~ 60%. At present, the British compost treatment rate of 12% of the total treatment rate of garbage, XiaoNa biodegradable waste composting is one of the effective ways. To achieve the eu regulation of biodegradable waste landfill emission reduction goals, the British association for the British promote compost domestic waste composting process puts forward progress goal: by 2005, the British family life waste composting rate to 25%, 2010 up to 30% in 2015 and to 33%, increasing year by year. According to statistics, in 2004 the British have 1.6 million tons of green waste is made into compost. 34% of British households in their own backyard compost made use of organic waste. British 2000, waste composting plants 89, years FeiLiang for 915000 tons of garbage. One center composting plants 9, 68990 tons of yield in compost, farm composting plants 11, 5837 tons of yield in composting; Miscellaneous kind of composting plants 1, composting in yield 15 tons. The rubbish composting plants process is classified into outdoor composting, static pile up, containers, inflatable compost heap bar cover and so on type, which is the center of the operation composting plants open type of article 53, the garbage productivity of 799980 tons, containers compost 2, the garbage productivity of 24560 tons, type of article covers four, waste composting production 10500 tons.