2022代写文书美国留学生essay论文：联盟组织的经济主体研究Research alliance between the main fact
With the development of economic globalization and science and technology, scarcity of resources, knowledge has become the key factor restricting sustainable development of enterprises . Form alliances to achieve through the establishment of knowledge sharing , access to knowledge resources from external knowledge networks, alliance members can improve the overall competitiveness of the league as well . Examine the complete process from knowledge sharing among alliance , you can see it from the three aspects : ① knowledge sharing body : each member organization ; ② knowledge sharing objects : each member has knowledge ; ③ knowledge sharing environment : knowledge sharing various objective criteria. Factors affecting the efficiency of knowledge sharing can be studied from the subject, object and environment alliance between the three aspects . Among them, sharing the main factors play a decisive role in inter- organizational knowledge sharing , knowledge sharing objective factors , such as object and the environment can be improved by a shared body .
Currently , research on the theory of knowledge sharing between
organizations lack the efficiency constraints discussion of shared main factors. This article explores the factors affecting the efficiency of knowledge-sharing alliance between the subject from the perspective of sharing , the corresponding feasibility of improving the efficiency of knowledge-sharing proposal papers to write .
Efficiency of the main factors of knowledge sharing
Sharing the main bearers of knowledge sharing activities , sharing the main factors that determine the success or failure of the alliance knowledge sharing . Heterogeneity three factors contained in the body are the main share intrinsic willingness to share power and the subject.
Willingness to share the inner body
An organizational knowledge sharing behavior depending on whether it wishes to share the motivation and the presence of trade-offs arising from the implementation of shared that knowledge sharing between risk and return trade-offs. On a shared motivation , the alliance 's traditional organizational boundaries to break the shackles of knowledge flows , so that members acquire knowledge resources from outside the organizational boundaries to form collaborative different expertise … between different organizations . Therefore , reliance on partners, resources constitute the intrinsic motivation of knowledge sharing between organizations . In addition , the alliance provides an opportunity for the members of the organization to an external learning through interactive learning mechanisms and alliance partners , organizations can improve the ability to create and expand knowledge of specific areas of technology , organizational learning constitute another inherent inter-organizational knowledge sharing motivation.
Sharing the main motivation into action requires certain preconditions. As the Alliance members are independent economic entities , different members of the interests between sexual partners decided mutually exclusive psychological presence and opportunism motivation. For members of the organization itself , the lack of internal knowledge sharing will lead to poor performance , the opportunistic behavior of partners will lead to knowledge leakage , damage their own interests . In order to guard against possible opportunistic behavior partners , alliance members widespread tendency knowledge protection . Sharing the main motivation for the members can be transformed into action , mainly constrained by the following two factors :
Equity interest in the fairness of the distribution of internal union rights and the special relationship between disposable income , knowledge- based alliance is defined by a series of contracts on equity allocation . Interest in a fair and reasonable allocation , can effectively eliminate opportunism , conservatism , and other factors caused instability in the league , improving the efficiency of knowledge sharing ; fairness and equity is reduced , Alliance members will certainly result in a subjective desire and motivation to reduce , or even eventually destroy throughout the Union . Equity interest in the contract and the need to protect the system . Rational design and distribution of benefits and arrangements entered into alliance program contracts , fair or not directly determine the level of commitment of members in the process of knowledge sharing . To some extent , be able to give a detailed cooperation cooperation agreement must be legally binding acts , so that knowledge can be shared in a more transparent framework , thereby reducing the other side of the contradiction, enhanced security , and promote partnerships.
The level of trust between partnersBecause the relationship between alliance partners is a cooperative competition , mutual cooperation may involve sharing their core knowledge , sharing certain risks inherent in the project , together with a shared body of heterogeneity, these factors determine the existence of psychological distance between partners . The greater the psychological distance between the partners , expectations of future differences and responses greater suspicion , opportunism , protectionist and biased behavior necessarily more serious. Good trust structure can narrow the psychological distance between the partners , to promote knowledge sharing. The higher the level of trust , Alliance members will be more willing to consider the issue from the perspective of bilateral cooperation , rather than focusing on local interests , will be more willing to share their information and knowledge .
In addition, the clarity of goals to help the cooperative union members have a clear and consistent understanding of the target , so that members of the inner layer of the strategic importance of knowledge sharing have a full understanding , strengthen alliance cohesion , mutual cooperation to promote their produce , willingness to share knowledge .
Shared body of knowledge sharing capabilities
Content knowledge sharing capabilitiesShared body of knowledge sharing capabilities include communication skills, organizational learning and knowledge feedback capability in three aspects .Communication skills is the basis for knowledge sharing and organizational learning. Alliance partners can create organizational practices and tacit knowledge embedded tacit knowledge , which is reflected in the participation and cooperation among members of the organization , and together form a part of the alliance knowledge base . Therefore, in the process of knowledge sharing , communication skills is essential. Especially in cross-border alliances , language skills and cross-cultural capabilities played an indispensable role. Hamel (1991) study found that in almost all of the employees of Western companies lack the ability and the Japanese do not understand Japanese culture , this limits their practical skills and knowledge obtained from Japanese collaborators there. However, they are not the same Japanese collaborators lack language skills, which enable them to acquire knowledge from collaborators wanted there .
Organizational learning is the knowledge of staff through learning organization will get into knowledge organization , to improve organizational activities and further spread , stored within the organization process. Corresponding to this is the organization 's ability to learn. Organization's ability to learn can usually be divided into three areas: learning attempts , absorptive capacity and integration capability . Union members hold a learner 's subjective intention , will encourage employees to actively seek and learn valuable knowledge and to absorb. Absorptive capacity of the organization refers to the organization on the basis of external knowledge effectively identify valuable on to receive, and to master the ability to learn and internalize . Lorenzoni et al (1999 ) believes that absorb knowledge from internal or external is the ability to organize specific absorption capacity will directly affect the flow and sharing of knowledge across the organization , the stronger the absorption capacity of the organization , then convert it to absorb new knowledge alien speed and efficiency higher ' . Integration is the shared body of knowledge existing knowledge inside and outside the organization to adopt new methods to the process of reconstruction . Ability to integrate knowledge determines the alliance members can effectively improve the level of common knowledge within the organization and between organizations , so that knowledge can be more effective dissemination and sharing.
Knowledge feedback capability refers alliance members as learners , while the outside of their knowledge , comprehensive and feedback to the Union , and then the league is learning and sharing capabilities . Good feedback capabilities should include: ① accurate generalization capability refers to a shared body of knowledge can be accurately summed up inside of expression and complete standardized conceptualization of tacit knowledge , tacit knowledge explicit and messy knowledge ; ② quickly ability to communicate , referring to the shared body of knowledge can be passed to the needs of those in the fastest time ; ③ timely adjustment capability , that knowledge flows, sharing body time to adjust or correct expression of knowledge content . A shared body of knowledge ability to enhance the absorption efficiency of the feedback information receiving side to improve the effectiveness of Union overall knowledge sharing .
Capacity constraints of shared knowledge sharing knowledge sharing capability is the subject of its own knowledge base and technical capabilities, the impact of organizational structure and organizational culture . For external digestion technology is a process of knowledge to decode or open , not only to pay the costs , but also to a certain intellectual capacity basis. Hendriks (1999) pointed out that , unlike the commodity -like knowledge can freely pass , when to learn from others knowledge ( knowledge sharing others ) , there must be rebuilt behavior must have the knowledge to learn knowledge and sharing knowledge . Union cooperation on technology , the need for technical resources partners operate treatment will inevitably require their members have the appropriate knowledge processing capabilities and flexible processing capabilities of hardware resources , in the absence of appropriate hardware conditions and technical capacity situation , members of the League will not be effective technical cooperation , it is difficult to grasp the opportunity for technological innovation .
In addition , the organizational structure is an important factor in knowledge sharing and learning to absorb the impact . Research on organizational structure show that centralized multi- agency tend to copy and past behavior reinforced , flat type authorized institutions tend to allow rapid changes in behavior and beliefs . Alliance for Innovation , the hierarchical structure of the internal members of centralization because it can not respond to rapid changes in the environment will directly affect the flow and sharing of knowledge across the organization , resulting in barriers to organizational learning and innovation. Similarly, the organizational culture will affect the flow of knowledge and efficiency within the organization. Emphasis on humanity, willing to share knowledge and emotional communication between organizational culture that encourages innovation will employees, thus speeding up the process of creating an internal organization of knowledge , and ultimately enable organizations to share knowledge among the league in terms of quality and quantity have been improved .
Heterogeneity shared bodyUnion broke the traditional boundaries and hierarchical organization , so that the flow of knowledge across the organization . As each member of the organization is an independent economic entity , compared with the flow of knowledge within the organization , the flow of knowledge across the organization with greater difficulty. Union members differ in various aspects of organizational culture , organizational structure, technical level and learning ability , these differences greatly increased knowledge sharing resistance.
Cultural barriers to organizational culture is widely shared with strong organizational shared values . While some cultural differences may increase the interest of learning from each other , but have some knowledge sharing altruistic , similar culture and values system will make working relationships both knowledge and learning more harmonious. Common values not only promoted mutual understanding and predictive capability , but also to ensure the two sides agreed on the process of technical cooperation agreement. Diverse attitudes and motivation , intellectual and spiritual values of the scale of the heterogeneity of cultural differences will affect the alliance members bring the same problem will also bring a different perspective and understanding of logic, which led to the perception gap between organizations knowledge transfer , thereby greatly affected organizations. Cultural barriers will increase the knowledge sharing communication costs, lack of ability to make cross-cultural alliance members pay dearly .
Organization refers to the distance from the main differences between organizational structure and organizational size . Knowledge-based coalition to organize learning the subject. " On the operating level , knowledge transfer is an inter-organizational communication process ." Union members have their own special organizational structure and organization of the scale , causing tissue transfer and sharing of knowledge to ask more difficult . Different organizational structures to match different organizational learning, communication , memory and absorption model and its corresponding organizational practices and coordination mechanisms. Differences in organizational structure , the more difficult to communicate between each other , dialogue and exchange of knowledge the greater difficulty of the channel open , and with the increase in members of the Union and more complex. Moreover , the gap between memory and increase the absorption patterns will result in lower efficiency of mutual feedback .Knowledge sharing is inevitable technical barriers exist between organizations sharing a certain degree of knowledge sharing between the two main areas , including information technology , the technology Union, mainly as a technical cooperation organization mainly technical level knowledge. Specificity of knowledge within the organization would adversely affect sharing technology . Technical knowledge of a particular organization is usually associated with a particular background , with path-dependent nature of technology is its ability to accumulate long-term , continuous evolution of the formation of this technical knowledge can not be shared by another organization in a short time . In addition, some technologies have special properties , can only be used for specific purposes , it is difficult for the other purposes. Technical dedicated the stronger , the higher the cost of successful learning coalition partners , the greater the difficulty .
Learning ability and effort put into the presence of members of the Union League of knowledge sharing between organizations only difference in the two sides complement each other with the knowledge resources and knowledge structure matched with peer learning situation , to be able to equal participation and mutual learning and sharing knowledge . If the differences between alliance members in these areas , knowledge sharing between them would be difficult to proceed smoothly. Input into the league of the parties due to differences in objectives and benefits and other aspects and different. Gain knowledge-sharing projects accumulated gradually increased over time , the effect takes a long time to show it , knowledge sharing is difficult to rely on short-term financial performance indicators for evaluation. Some members might focus on short-term performance evaluation , will make their long-term strategic intent is located in the short-term financial performance criteria , control input into organizational learning , knowledge sharing affect the effectiveness of the entire league .
Conclusions and recommendations feasibilityIn the above three factors , the shared body of knowledge sharing intrinsic motivation and behavior determine whether it wishes to participate in shared activities and good faith cooperation , reflecting the heterogeneity of the main members of the League of the cost, knowledge sharing , and sharing capabilities knowledge sharing directly affect their performance . Factor in these three areas are not isolated to function .http://www.ukassignment.org/mgessaydx/Sharing the main level of heterogeneity is too large, too low will affect the ability of the body to share expectations for revenue sharing with the likelihood of success , which would weaken their shared willingness and active participation . Conversely , under certain conditions , sharing the inner body can be a dominant factor wishes . In a design science fair system environment and good trust environment, a shared willingness to play an active role in the body can be . To promote their efforts to improve their ability to share , communicate and exchange with partners to actively reduce the heterogeneity of the main drag, and eventually to knowledge sharing. In fact, the subject of shared knowledge sharing knowledge is embedded in the institutional structure , individual rationality is rational cognition under the established institutional structures . A good structure and the structure of the system is the key to promoting trust alliance knowledge sharing . For alliance members actively participate in knowledge sharing and achieved good results , one needs to establish a favorable institutional framework of knowledge sharing , encouraging members of intrinsic motivation knowledge sharing , while monitoring and constraints members opportunistic behavior ; on the other hand , need to rely on the value of , internalized culture and goals to encourage members to cooperate and promote members to improve their organizational learning capacity, reduce the adverse effects of heterogeneity members .
Build trust conducive to knowledge sharing environmentTake effective measures to improve the level of trust coalition partners , is to eliminate the differences , and promote efficient and effective way of knowledge sharing . Help establish good inter-organizational trust environment full share knowledge resources and strengthen the competitive advantage of the union . From a practical point of view , a clear agreement of alliance is an effective way to enhance trust relationships . In addition, the following measures will help to improve several aspects of the level of trust among the members of the League :
• Establish credibility mechanism. Reputation mechanism is an important factor in knowledge sharing among alliance members smooth implementation. Inter-organizational knowledge sharing alliance is a long-term exchanges , several collaborative process to establish the credibility of the file with the credit rating mechanisms help improve cooperation parties involved staff enthusiasm, established members of their cooperative credit , produced between alliance members to promote trust mechanism , and consciously participate in knowledge sharing activities.
· Shaping the Alliance for Cultural and promote integration. Emphasis on the establishment of a knowledge and innovation emphasizes mutual trust , mutual learning and cultural alliances can reduce the adverse effects of heterogeneity shared body , reduce the cognitive differences between members , while reducing the risk of reducing the relationship shared costs. Specific practices that can be cross-cultural training, and encourage informal contacts , prompting all alliance members to improve the transparency of the behavior and decision-making , so that a variety of cultural interpenetration in the league , interacting with each other , and ultimately through mutual learning from each other, forming a fusion of one of the Union culture.
· Strengthen communication, enhance trust. Effective communication is conducive to enhancing trust between organizations , not only can reduce the cost of knowledge transfer , and can increase the speed of the flow of knowledge and promote knowledge sharing. Union should establish a diversified knowledge-sharing processes and secondary cooperative network platform , through the establishment of multi-directional communication channel , expanding the field of ideas and communication opportunities for alliance members . Meanwhile , the establishment of a series of multi-functional teams across the organization , Alliance members coordinate cooperative learning and exchange, to help improve organizational learning and collaboration capacity of members , foster a shared vision and innovation in knowledge sharing alliance .
Inter- league organization knowledge sharing efficiency factors are many factors in addition to sharing their own body , but there is a shared object – knowledge of the reason , more shared environmental factors , such as a country's level of intellectual property protection , government policy , the degree of perfection of the market mechanism and so on . Due to space limitations , this article focuses on the analysis of the factors that determine the efficiency of knowledge sharing resulting from the sharing of the body itself , whether the subject is a shared enterprise , universities or research institutions , find commonalities , mining analysis of its causes , the corresponding feasibility recommendations. Conclusion of a universal significance. The next step will be combined with the reality of the operation of the alliance empirical analysis will study in depth.