2022代写服务英国萨里大学\University of Surrey音乐教育essayessay论文：有关基督教和西方音乐On Christia
Refers to a medieval European feudal society, from about the 5th century to the 14th century . Medieval European institutions such as the preparation of a variety of music , research institutions, as well as choir , schools , etc., all belonging to the church , managed by the clergy . In the early Middle Ages , Western music, Christian music showing the situation of a single flower . During this period, Western music is church music as the main form .中世纪指的是欧罗巴洲封建社会形态，大约从公元 5百年至 14百年。中百年欧罗巴洲的各种音乐机构如编著、研讨机构，以及合唱队、学院等，所有隶归属教会，由宗教专职人员管理。在中百年的前一阶段，西方音乐闪现出耶稣教音乐一花独放的局面。在这一一段时间，西方音乐是以教堂音乐为主要表显露原形式。
Christian music is represented by medieval Gregorian chant (Gregorian Chant). The chant appeared in the 6th century , Pope Gregory Yin Luoma (GregoryI, in either 590 – 604) is named. It is said that in the 6th century, around the church music is not uniform. Gregory I committed to the unity of church music , the original church ordinances around the songs, praise songs, collect, select , organize , compiled a " right to sing Set " (Antiphonarium), and tuning and usage to regulations. Gregorian chant accompanied by a large number of Latin lyrics monophonic music composed . It is a faithful expression of verses of the song , the melody detached, calm , there is no earthly desires . It is not for the appreciation , but purely for religious rituals is the author , is a practical music, do not attach importance to auditory beauty, or the folk music of hyperbole. This chant to pure vocal singing, without instrumental accompaniment , do not change and ornamentation . It also did not pitch line and the time signature is completely free beats, lyrics only Latin. Gregorian chant is all Catholic liturgical songs, only priests singing, the congregation does not participate in singing .中世纪耶稣教音乐的代表是格列高利圣咏（ Gregorian Chant）。该圣咏显露出来在 6百年，因罗马教皇格列高利（ GregoryI，在任 590－ 604）而得名。据闻公元 6百年时，各地教会音乐并不一统。
Gregorian chant is formed, rapidly transmitted to the country, especially in northern Italy , the United Kingdom , Ireland, France and other places have been more popular . Until the 14th century , the Catholic Church is also only Gregorian chant . In today's Catholic Church , Gregorian chant is also frequently used.Gregorian chant as the main body of the European early music feudal society can be said that Western music culture in the first flower . Its development with the entire history of Western music are closely related . In the notation of research, music theory , polyphonic music of the rise and development of the music school founded and many other aspects , we must mention Gregorian chant , even modern modal music is also based on Gregorian chant tuning based .Gregorian chant melody is not only the richest feature permanently saved in the medieval composer's creation, but also saved many centuries later composers creation . We Bach, Mozart , who works in these melodies can be heard , such as Mozart's " Jupiter " Symphony , Liszt's " Dance of Death ," Berlioz's " Symphonie Fantastique " fifth movement , St. · san with organ and piano "C minor Third Symphony ," Rachmaninoff piano and orchestral works , " Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini ." Has spread many songs , such as the minuet , a military march , and the first movement sonata , are Gregorian chant by the extension from. Two . Generated in the Christian context of polyphonic music polyphonic music is made up of two or more mutually independent parts composed music. Produce this kind of music , marking a major step forward western music . Polyphonic music of medieval Christian context, is Gregorian chant evolved, its musicians are Catholic monks.Back in the early 7th century , the Catholic Church on some monks musicians in Gregorian chant by adding another interesting part of the accompaniment , and carried out some tests. However, the actual use of polyphonic music is in the 9th century .At the time, some of the monks musicians try to Gregorian chant with a parallel four degrees below five degrees or part , this change took Gregorian chant tone music became polyphonic music . This simple form of polyphony called " Organum " (Organum, it was also translated into parallel transfer ) . Organum produced in Limoges, France , and seems to have been limited by the small number of concert singing hymns and specific mass fluent technical part treble singers sing. The initial Organum mostly two voices, it is at Notre Dame developed to the highest level . Where the third or fourth tone portion is added to the original monophonic chant . Organum is Notre Dame 's most famous composers musicians Lei Weng South (Leoninus, living in the 12th century ) , he has created a lot of Organum , one of the most famous one album is " the total set Organum , "is authored by the Catholic festivals throughout the year , all the songs belong to two voices coloratura style Organum . To the 11th century , some monks musicians and try to add in parallel chant melody on top of the line from the parallel to the ramp , but also to reverse gradually carried out . Reverse conduct was certainly after the polyphony another important form of music is produced , which is " flute Scone Du " (Discantus, it was also translated as "anti- OK tune" ) . Flute Scone have to reverse for the principle of allowing voices staggered and allowed three , six degrees of pitch and tone carried through , making the melody more gorgeous . It is used for church song , the theme song to use more mass and daily prayer verses melody. Flute Scone are popular in France, its most famous composer is Reon South heir, Notre Dame musicians Pei labor fixed (Perotinus Magnus, about 1183-1236 ) . His works more than twice department.13th century polyphonic music in Christian music began to be widely used. With the development of polyphonic music , has produced two new multi-voice polyphonic choral music genre (Polyphonic conductus) and Motets (Motet).Choral polyphony flourished in the early 13th century , its main feature is a breakthrough in the past polyphonic voices must have a Gregorian chant using restriction rests with the individual parts composer creative freedom , freedom , sound is substantially the same between the rhythm section . Polyphonic choral song lyrics often moralizing or ceremonial in nature, this chorus seems to have been for religious or other ceremony, parade and prepared .\Late 13th century , Art Nouveau polyphonic music took a big step forward in from the Organum produced a motet . Motet is to chant melody by adding one or several different lyrics new part.
It eventually replaced Organum and polyphonic choral songs.
Three . To Christianity as the main content of the oratorio in the 17th century oratorio is a large vocal divertimento , but also a large concert performances vocal works , to date, many composers also use it to show significant historical or practical subject matter .Cantatas secular music despite the rapid development in the late Renaissance , but its contents are produced and are closely related with Christianity .13th century , due to St. Francis of Assisi (St. Francesco d'Assisi) movement, produced in Italy and a popular hymn , called gods praise (Landi Spirituali). This is a kind of popular tunes and lyrics written popularized the lives of religious songs . Not in church singing these songs , but in the people together in prayer ***** Roman citizens at home singing . This hymn inserted later form of dialogue , so conversational gods praise arises. The gods praise with simple harmonies, popular style, different songs by the team with the form on the duet singing .Oratorio is to praise the gods dramatic generated. Some people think that in 1600 staged a work in Rome , " the performance of soul and body " is the earliest extant cantatas . Also suggested that in 1619 by the Anais Leo (G. Francesco Anerio) created the " charm drama" is the first real oratorio .Structure and opera oratorio composed of roughly the same : There are lyrical tone, solo duet , recitation tone , chorus, Overture and other instrumental music , but also the story and role assignments. The difference is : oratorios actors do not disguise, no show, just singing, without stage sets, lighting , props , the singer has been on the stage , without the admission and other dramatic action, regardless of the whole show from start to finish curtain, and only chapter of the points, a Syrian chant by proprietary , narrative plot. In addition, the choral oratorio than opera and more .Early oratorio is divided into two types, one is the use of Latin oratorio , specifically to biblical subjects , belong to the true church music , this oratorio to the latter half of the 17th century disappeared . Another use is in Italian cantatas , drawing more freely , mostly in concert singing , known as the popular oratorio . Oratorio spread so far , is the latter. While not liturgical oratorio popular music, but for centuries , most of the oratorio works are based on the Christian as the main content .Composer of the 17th century 's most famous oratorio is Italian Carissimi (Carissimi, Giacomo, 1605-1674) and German Schütz (H. Schutz, 1585-1672). Carissimi created 16 cantatas , are based on the Christian Bible written in the classic , one of the more famous ones , " Jephthah ," " Solomon settle a lawsuit ," " Belshazzar " and " Last Judgment ." Schutz more creative oratorio Christ in biography , the Bible Gospels as a theme , called " Passion Oratorio " , one of the more famous: " Easter Oratorio ", " Seven Words of Jesus on the cross ," " Christmas section of the story . "Following Carissimi and Schütz , the entire Baroque period ( 1600-1750 ) the most outstanding masters when the number of British oratorio German composer Handel (George Frideric Handel, 1685-1759). Handel's opera and oratorio creation mainly . Handel oratorio life created a total of 32 , mostly as a theme in the Bible story . More influential , often staged today are: " Saul ," " Israel in Egypt ," " Messiah ," " Samson ," " Judas Mary White ," " Joshua " " Solomon ." The " Messiah " and " Samson " is widely recognized as the classic oratorio . "Messiah" as the theme of the Bible Gospels , describes the birth of Jesus , the gospel , suffering , crucifixion and resurrection were holy experience. This oratorio 1743 Hall premiere in London , shocked all the audience , even after listening to King George II in the second act finale "Hallelujah ", the stand to show respect , until the song end . Handel contemporaries with another eminent German composer Johann Sebastian Bach 's music guru (JS Bach, 1685-1750) has created a number of excellent ministry Passion oratorio , such as " John Passion ," " St. Matthew Passion " and the " christmas Oratorio " and so on , the contents of these cantatas are based on the Bible, the Gospels .Famous Austrian composer Haydn in the most prominent vocal contribution of oratorio . He created a total of five cantatas , most of them have Christ's content, such as "multi Shakespeare 's Return" , "The Cross of Seven ", " Genesis " , of which the " Genesis " is the most famous ." Genesis " based on Milton's "Paradise Lost ," the second chapter describes the creation of God and Adam and Eve fall story.Great musicians of modern Europe the only one of Beethoven's oratorio " Christ on the Mount of Olives " is also the theme of the creation of a Christian .The most distinguished 19th century German composer Felix Mendelssohn 's oratorio by hand . Mendelssohn created a total of three cantatas , most notably the " St. Paul " and " Elijah ." " Elijah " are still staged. His third oratorio "Christ " , but did not complete . This three cantatas are based on the biblical story .19 century Christianity as the main content creation and French composer Berlioz's oratorio " Christ's Childhood" , the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt 's " St. Elizabeth " and " Jesus " and so on .20th century, many famous oratorio still Christianity as a theme, such as the British composer Elgar " Jilunshesi Dream" , Walton created the " white Erxia Sha 's feast," the Russian -American composer Manchester pull Stravinsky created " Oedipus king" , the Polish composer Peng Dire Nowitzki creation of " St. Luke Passion" and so on.Four Western famous musician Christian music Christian influence on Western music , but also in the creation of Christian musicians music .West's most important 14th century musicians when pushed French poet and composer Machaut (Guillaumede Machaut, 1300-1377). Machaut young man who received theological education , and received the priest's office . Church music in his works accounted for a large proportion , mainly Motets and Missa . 14th century 's most famous work is a church music Machaut creation of " Our Lady of Missa ", which is designed specifically for the coronation of the King of France, made a four choral Missa .First half of the 15th century 's most important composers Di Fei (Guillaume Dufey, 1400-1474), also a Catholic priest , and his Missa have eight preserved , most notably with "Ecce ancilla Domini" and "Ave Regi na coelorum ". He is the author of the motet , not only the quantity but also very deep , very devout , such as Florence Cathedral and made "Nuper rosarum", as well as the decline of Byzantium and , on " Elegy of Constantinople ." .
The latter half of the 15th century 's most prestigious musicians are two Flemish composer Eau Trondheim (Johannes Ockeghem, 1430-1495) and Cyril Despres (Josquin des Prez, 1450-1521). They have created a lot of church music . Eau Herm 's works were famous "extended Missa ", " Whose voice Missa " and " Missa Fifth tuning " as well as a frequently mentioned by people motet "Thank the Lord ." . Despres creative works surviving church music since about 30 , and more than 100 Missa first motet . Among Missa "Pange lingua", " warrior Missa " motet "Ave verum", " Hail Elijah ", " Stabat Mater " is the most famous .The most distinguished 16th century Western music maestro can be said that the Belgians La Sasi (Orlandus Lassus, 1532-1594) and the Italian Palestrina (Palestrina, 1525-1594). La Sasi has created a 52 Missa , 100 Our Lady of Good Lord song, about 1200 motets and other chants , Mater . His motets in music history reached its peak level . Main representative of " mass burial ", " Repentance chant ." Palestrina was known as the " music of the King" , his work is not only beautiful sounds , but a surprising number , namely Missa 103 , 330 motets , dedication song 68 , hymn 87 , Our Lady of Good verse 35 , Lamentations 13 and so on. His works pursuit solemn religious atmosphere , is considered the ideal liturgical music.Known as the father of modern music German composer Johann Sebastian Bach , is the Baroque period (1600 – 1750 ) one of the greatest musicians and also the last one to compose music for the church as the biggest concern of the great genius. In his works, the church music occupies a very important position. As a devout Protestant Bach , the main contribution to the church music are: Missa created five , six motets ; 5 years for the church created a weekly ritual used cantata ( a large, vocal divertimento ) Total 200 ; has created a lot of organ music , which has 144 chant tone. In these works are considered masterpieces of Bach is "B minor Mass ."This is the first Missa similar music is considered the most profound , the most spectacular, the most outstanding example of this . It includes the traditional " God pity pity Song," " Blessed by", " Creed ", " to the Bible ," " The Lamb " 5 parts of 24 sub-song . Which permeated with the spirit of the Protestant reform and humanitarian ideas .
Classical era ( 1750-1820 ) Greatest 3 Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven church music have been created . Haydn nurtured by Christian music . Has created a 14 Missa , which " Nelson Mass " the most famous. Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart created a total of 18 life Missa , better known as "C minor Mass ", " Coronation Mass " and " Requiem ." He also wrote eight cantata , which " penitent David " and " Masson small cantata " famous . His motet " cheers Eucharist " is also well known. Beethoven's life , it's only created two Missa , "C major Mass " and " Missa Solemnis ", " Missa Solemnis " is a masterpiece of Beethoven as life , he is completely according to the feelings of the soul creation . This is the first Missa although not a liturgical sacred music , but showed a strong religious sentiment , is indeed a noble religious music.
Enter the Romantic period ( 1820-1900 ) , many musicians are still creating Christian music . The famous Italian composer Rossini's later life only created two works , both Christian music , one for the " Stabat Mater " , another for " Little Missa Solemnis ." Austrian composer Franz Schubert also wrote over six Masses and other sacred music , in which the "AB Major Mass " and " Ave Maria " famous . His " Ave Maria " mellow tunes tactfully express delicate and rich , to express a longing for the good and the beautiful . French composer Berlioz Creation Christian music " Requiem " and " Thanksgiving Song ." German composer Felix Mendelssohn is on the hymn , carols and other choral motet interested in the creation of his most famous oratorio as a " tribute to Chillon ." Hungarian composer Franz Liszt life are devout Catholics . He has written Missa , chant and other church music , such as " Grand Mass " and "Ungarische Kronungs-Messe" and so on. Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi created a lot of church music. One of his most famous oratorio was " Requiem ." The song uses the traditional Mass genres and expressions , including " requiem ", " day of wrath ", " dedication ", " holy g", " Lamb of God ", " Tears by", "save me" 7 section having a tear-jerking huge appeal. French composer Gounod's opera and lyric works of the most outstanding church music . His most famous one is the Missa "Holy is Cecilia Mass" , the famous Vatican anthem "The Pope march" is his creation . Austrian composer Bruckner symphony is often created with a strong religious overtones and organ music effects , put on the religious beliefs embodied among the most magnificent musical forms , such as his " revelation Symphony " and " Tragic Symphony " ( also known as" church "Symphony ) . Sacred music he composed the " Missa ", " Requiem" and "Thanksgiving Song" and so on. German composer Brahms also created a lot of genres of choral church music , including "German Requiem" , "Thanksgiving Song ", " Missa " and so on .
Since the 20th century , many of the musicians from the Christian inspiration and creative passion , writing a lot of good Christian sacred music . Stravinsky's " Missa " Missa in this century in the crowd, reminiscent of the 14 , the 15th century church music. His " Symphony of Psalms " chose three hymns in the Bible as the symphony 3 movement libretto vocal parts , this masterpiece by the author as " the glory of God for ." French composer Poulenc 's a cappella "G minor Mass " is a masterpiece of his vocal works , representing the highest level of his vocal writing . British composer Williams' "A Christmas Carol Fantasia" , Britten 's "A Christmas Carol ceremony " is also part of this century excellent Christian sacred music of the column. In addition, the Hungarian composer Kodaly , British composer Walton , American composer Leonard Bernstein have created some outstanding Missa .
Western music has been adopted by many Christian themes , mainly in western audience , the audience is very familiar to Christianity , appreciate it straightaway . If we have a lack of understanding of Christianity , it can not fully and accurately grasp and appreciate Western music. So whether it is from the perspective of Western music appreciation , or from the perspective of a comprehensive understanding of Christianity , Christianity and Western studies the relationship between music are necessary .