2022代写研究计画英国圣安德鲁斯大学 (University of St Andrews)：对文化旅游者管理行为的多样性的简单论述
Managing on Behaviour Diversity管理行为多样性
The tourist behaviour not only links to the diverse range of cultural activities but also directly influences the cultural tourism product provision. In order to carry out effective management activities and marketing strategies, the cultural tourists characteristic behaviour should be evaluated since it has important implications for destination management.旅游行为不仅链接到多元化的文化活动，但也直接影响着文化旅游产品提供。为了进行有效的管理活动和营销策略，文化旅游者特征行为应进行评估，因为它具有重要的意义，目标管理。
A destination should be developed to cater to the type of cultural tourists expected and to provide different levels of engagement for different types of cultural tourists. The realization of different types of cultural tourists needs should be considered in product innovation and development for the target groups. Sinces the tourism product is a blend of elements within a destination, the elements can be natural, built, or cultural and social attractions (Robinson et al., 1996a). For instance, the tour operators developing and providing planning most suitable trip routes may combine a number of cultural activities, provide diverse information and guidance to meet different groups needs. It needs a vision on the future of cultural tourism, an understanding of the current trends in the tourism market and above all an innovative approach to product development. Furthermore, the awareness and realization should also be integrated in marketing strategies, the promotion of a wide variety of attractions using different messages to target the market. After their visiting, the destination needs “to recognize visitor experiences if they wish to capture repeat visits and stimulate recommendations, as well as provide a good core product.” (Page and Connell, 2006, p.182) Buhalis and Costa (2006b, p.242) also point out that “Transformation of tourism demand and consumer behaviours will gradually place customers in the driving seat of the industry and will require customer-centric strategies where consumers are empowered to build their experiences.”应制定一个目标，以满足文化旅游者预期的类型和不同类型的文化游客提供不同级别的交战。应考虑实现不同类型的文化游客的需求，在产品的创新和发展为目标群体。 Sinces旅游产品，是一个融合的目标内的元素，这些元素可以是自然，内置，文化和社会的景点（Robinson等，1996）。例如，旅游经营者开发并提供最合适的行程路线规划结合了多项文化活动，提供多样化的信息和指导，以满足不同群体的需求。它需要一个对未来的愿景的文化旅游，在旅游市场的当前趋势及以上所有产品开发创新的方法来了解。此外，也应该认识和实现整合营销策略，推广各种各样的景点，使用不同的消息目标市场。他们的访问后，目标需要认识到，如果他们想捕捉重复访问和刺激的建议，并提供一个良好的核心产品的游客体验。“（佩奇和康奈尔，2006年，第182页）Buhalis和哥斯达黎加（2006年b，第242页）也指出，“旅游需求和消费行为将逐步把客户在驾驶座位的产业转型，将要求以客户为中心的战略，消费者有权建立自己的经验。”
In many case, when the tourist visits are short and they lack local knowkedge, it is a problem for tourists to make sense of the place, sometimes the culture differences and complexation, the language barriers confuses tourists who do not have the resources to develop a cultural understanding of the local society. In this context, the culture of the place is decentred from the culture product. Conversely, a destination manager should be aware about that the experience the destination provides which could be engineered to ‘transform’ the visitor. Cooper et al. (2008, pp.670-677) refer to Pine and Gilmore (1999) who describe that:在许多情况下，当游客参观的是短期和他们缺乏本地知识，对于游客理解一些景点是个问题，有时是文化差异和络合，语言障碍混淆游客没有资源发展当地社会的文化理解。在此背景下，将培养的地方偏心，从培养产物。相反，目的地管理应注意有关该目标提供了'改造'的游客，可以设计的经验。http://www.ukassignment.org/dxygessay/
“By transforming the nature of the visit to, say, sensitive natural sites, managers can change behaviour such that the visitor understands the nature of the site, and therefore is more inclined to protect it and behave in an appropriate way… while beginning to change the way the visitors behave.”
Among the strategic issues of tourism planning, the restructuring of the tourist product and the improvement of the Kyoto’s’ international and national accessibility should assume dominant position. The essence and scope of restructuring the cultural and heritage tourist product lies in the diversification and qualitative upgrading of the tourist supply, in interweaving and interlinking tourism and other tourism-related sectoral activities into regionally or intraregional identifiable and differentiated tourist products, or integrated tourism activity complexes. The tourism authorizer should analysis the benefits, in term s of satisfaction and personal development, which time pressed consumers really want from their visits. In support of the restructuring process, the promotion of certain new or less developed types of tourism, is expected to utilize and mobilize existing idle and regionally diverse, tourist resources and conduce to increasing destinations’ competitiveness and share in the international tourist market.
One thing should be pointed out that, which is despite Kyoto being a significant cultural destination in Asia, and the “Outline of the Master Plan of Kyoto City – 2001-2010” has been published even seven years, their marketing strategy in Europe is not working sufficiently. The city of Kyoto is one of the most popular tourist spots in Japan, gets nearly 50 million Japanese visitors each year compared with only one million non-Japanese visitors, most of over-sea visitors are from Asia and America.有一件事应该指出，尽管京都是一个重大的文化在亚洲的目的地，和“京都城市总体规划纲要 – 2001-2010”已经出版甚至7年，这是在欧洲，他们的营销策略是不足够的工作。京都市是日本最热门的旅游景点之一，得到了近50万日本游客每年只有100万非日本游客相比，大部分过海的游客都来自亚洲和美国。
As the writer experienced difficulties to finding the Kyoto travel information and instructions from a UK tour operator. Even a big company like Thomas Cook, had only one destination in Japan appearing on the Thomas Cook website which is Tokyo, no mention about Kyoto. Despite the number of tourists from the UK increasing from 15,000 in 1999 to 40,000 in 2006, its still a very small portion compare to the total figures of UK tourists travelling abroad every year. People may argue that it is because the UK is too far away from Japan, most tourists do not tend to travel too far from their country for reasons of time, cost and convenience. But according to JNTO ‘s (Japan National Tourist Organization) annual report, Kyoto attracted 250,400 American visitors who from even further distance in 2005, and the figure was increased to 451,267 in 2009.
In order to positing the industrial cultural and heritage product in the tourism market, new marketing strategies need to be developed. Can-Seng (2002, p.21) mentioned that “certain sites become tourist attractions because they offer experiences unique and different from tourists’ own ordinary experiences.” Coltman, M. M. (1989) also point out that the role played by tour wholesalers and travel agencies is the tourism products are also often located a fair distance from the customers, which requires intermediaries who can influence both the potential tourists and the tourist suppliers. For marketing to work there have to be appropriate connections between a destination and its market. Coltman, M. M. (1989, p.47) also suggested that:为了工业文化和文物的产品，并主张在旅游市场，需要制定新的营销策略。恒生（2002年，第21页）提到，“某些网站成为旅游景点，因为它们提供了独特经验和不同的游客自己不同寻常的体验。”科尔特曼，MM（1989）也指出，旅游批发商所扮演的角色和旅行社是旅游产品也经常位于客户一个公平的距离，这就要求中介机构可以影响潜在游客和旅游供应商。市场营销工作必须有适当的目标和市场之间的连接。
“There are strong links between tourist destinations and motivations for travel, and so such destinations must be planned around these motivations or visitor expectations. It is therefore obvious that no destination will appeal to all types of people; each tourist destination must develop its own characteristics to satisfy its appropriate segment or segments of the market.”
As a result of globalazationa and mass media, people travel more today than ever before, for this reason, travelers are becoming more educated and are therefore looking for more in a destination than a decent hotel and a few attractions, potential visitors select their destination by collecting information from various sources. Under this circumstance, to be successful, Kyoto tourism authorities may needs to look back on what they have operated both in Europe and in America, require a range of methods, media, materials and management to identify and evaluate the differences of social life, travel habit, motivation, expectation and tourist behaviour between different continents, working more closely with local travel agents, using appropriate advertising, promotion, public relations and publicity methods to high light Kyoto its own characteristics, developing their attractiveness and marketing, promoting their uniqueness to attract target specific potential consumers.#p#分页标题#e#
The implementation of cultural policies is interdependent on many other development factors and policies and mainly on those which concern overcoming and improving the overall organizational competence of the administration and its planning effectiveness at different levels. Particularly in Kyoto where tourism has a strong socio-economic impact the present bureaucratic style and the far from comprehensive planning actions must be superseded in order to integrate cultural tourism into a truly sustainable destination development.文化政策的实施，在许多其他发展的主要因素和政策，是相互依存的，主要是对那些涉及克服和提高整体的组织能力，在不同层次的管理和规划效益。特别是在京都的旅游业具有很强的社会经济影响，目前的官僚作风和遥远的从全面规划行动必须被取代，为了整合成一个真正可持续发展的目标发展文化旅游。