First and foremost, I would like to show my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Ms. Gao Feng, a respectable, responsible and resourceful scholar, who has provided me with valuable guidance in every stage of the writing of this thesis. Without her enlightening instruction, impressive kindness and patience, I could not have completed my thesis. Her keen and vigorous academic observation enlightens me not only in this thesis but also in my future study. I shall extend my thanks to Mrs. Guo for all her kindness and help. I would also like to thank all my teachers who have helped me to develop the fundamental and essential academic competence. My sincere appreciation also goes to the teachers and students from Liaoning Normal University, who participated this study with great cooperation. Last but not least, I’ d like to thank all my friends, especially my three lovely roommates, for their encouragement and support.
中英教育制度对比及其意义The Comparison and Implication of Education Systems in China and UK
China has a long history in education. The education system is being consummated gradually，While The Great Britain is the typical representative of western educator, who owns more advanced education system. Accompanying with the large extent of going abroad, it is necessary to think about the reason why so many Chinese students want to study abroad. So in the article, it is essential to compare the two education system. The article analysis the Chinese education system, and gives some personal suggestions.The most attractive point in Chinese education system is that Chinese people emphasize the traditional knowledge, which makes the students have a solid foundation. It is obvious that children in our country learn more in the childhood. But the western students learn slowly. Innovation and creativity are the most different point between the education systems. Sometimes, Chinese education limit students sense of innovation.The whole article has four parts: in the first chapter, it is the comparison of education system in china and UK. It contains Chinese education system and education system in UK. The two have their own merits and defects. In the chapter two, it is the higher education. It is divided into the high education in china and the higher education system in UK, and the third chapter is suggestions about improving Chinese education system.Keywords: Education System; Innovation; Independence; Suggestions
关键词：教育体制; 独立; 创新; 建议
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………….1Chapter One THE COMPARISON OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CHINA AND UK…..31.1Chinese Education System……………………………………………………………………………….……31.2 Education System in UK…………………………………………………….………..….5Chapter Two THE HIGHER EDUCATION…………………………………………………………….……72.1The High Education in China……………………………………………………………..72.2 The Higher Education System in UK…………………………………………….…….…8Chapter Three SUGGESTIONS ABOUT IMPROVING CHINESE EDUCATION SYSTEM………………………………………………………………………………………………………..103.1 Improving the Conception of Education………………………………………….….….103.2 Improving the System Structure…………………………………………………………11CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………..12Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….14Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………16
In its broad sense, education refers to any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage—its accumulated knowledge, values, and skills–from one generation to another. The People’s Republic of China has a nationwide system of public education, which includes primary schools, middle schools (lower and upper), and universities. Nine years of education is technically compulsory for all Chinese students. Education in China is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. The education system provides free primary education for six years (some provinces may have 5 years for primary school but 4 years for middle school) , starting at age seven or six, followed by six years of secondary education for ages 12 to 18. At this level, there are three years of middle school and three years of high school. The Ministry of Education reported a 99% attendance rate for primary school and an 80 percent rate for both primary and middle schools. Since free higher education was abolished in 1985, applicants to colleges and universities competed for scholarships based on academic ability. Private schools have been allowed since the early 1980s. The population has had on average only 6.2 years of schooling, but in 1986 the goal of nine years of compulsory education by 2000 was established.To provide for its population, China has a vast and varied school system. There are preschools, kindergartens, schools for the deaf and blind, key schools (similar to college preparatory schools), primary schools, secondary schools (comprising junior and senior middle schools, secondary agricultural and vocational schools, regular secondary schools, secondary teachers’ schools, secondary technical schools, and secondary professional schools), and various institutions of higher learning (consisting of regular colleges and universities, professional colleges, and short-term vocational universities). In terms of access to education, China’s system represented a pyramid; because of the scarcity of resources allotted to higher education, student numbers decreased sharply at the higher levels. Although there were dramatic advances in primary education after 1949, achievements in secondary and higher education were not as great. Although the government has authority over the education system, the Chinese Communist Party has played a role in managing education since 1949. The party established broad education policies and under Deng Xiaoping, tied improvements in the quality of education to its modernization plan. The party also monitored the government’s implementation of its policies at the local level and within educational institutions through its party committees. Party members within educational institutions, who often have a leading management role, are responsible for steering their schools in the direction mandated by party policy.Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments. The UK Government is responsible for Education in England with the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families and the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills leading, though the day to day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of Local Education Authorities. The Scottish Government is responsible for Education in Scotland with the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning leading. The Welsh Assembly Government is responsible for Education in Wales and the Northern Ireland Executive responsible for education in Northern Ireland with the Minister for Education, currently Caitríona Ruane (Sinn Féin), leading though responsibility at a local level is administered by five Education and Library Boards.In each country, education, though not school attendance is mandatory and attendance at primary and secondary is nearly universal. Though most pupils are educated in state schools, there is also an important private sector. Similarly, most universities in the United Kingdom are state funded, though there is one private university in England – the University of Buckingham – where students are required to pay all the costs without state support.#p#分页标题#e#There are a lot of differences between the education systems, which caused by a lot of reasons, such as culture differences, economic reasons, and concepts, etc.
Chapter OneTHE COMPARISON OF EDUCATION SYSTEM IN CHINA AND UK
China has a long history in education. Education system has been evolved from generation to generation. But the most accomplished period is the one since 1960s, that is to say, after People’s Republic of China establishing, especially for adapting to the economic modernization. The post-Mao Zedong Chinese Communist Party leadership viewed education as the foundation of the Four Modernizations.
1.1 Chinese Education SystemDeng Xiaoping’s far-ranging educational reform policy, which involved all levels of the education system, aimed to narrow the gap between China and other developing countries. Modernizing education was critical to modernizing China. Devolution of educational management from the central to the local level was the means chosen to improve the education system. Centralized authority was not abandoned, however, as evidenced by the creation of the State Education Commission. Academically, the goals of reform were to enhance and universalize elementary and junior middle school education; to increase the number of schools and qualified teachers; and to develop vocational and technical education. A uniform standard for curricula, textbooks, examinations, and teacher qualifications was established, and considerable autonomy and variations in and among the autonomous regions, provinces, and special municipalities were allowed. Further, the system of enrollment and job assignment in higher education was changed, and excessive government control over colleges and universities was reduced.Nowadays the quality education has already arrested people’s attentions for its unique importance. The aim of quality education should be the dedication to improving three special qualities among the students, that is, quality of the laborer, of the country, and of the nation. Quality Education has four aspects —Moral, Intellectual, Physical and Labor. Moreover, it is necessary to realize three great changes in the long process, that is, to change from merely cultivating the minority students of topnotch to improving the quality of the collectivity, to change from merely emphasizing the intellectual education to the all-around one expanded to morality, phsique, aesthetics and labor, and to change from education of examination to that for the socialist modernization. All this embodies the urgent adaptation to the challenging competitions in the current society. So Quality Education can be seen as “the biggest leap” in the reform of education system.In China, education is always an important part of people’s life. The education is divided into three categories: basic education, higher education, and adult education. The Compulsory Education Law of stipulates that each child has nine years of formal education. Students enter a primary school, secondary school, college and university and then get degrees. Although, China has a great civilization from old to now, its education system is not as perfect as we expect .Students study English, Chinese, math as their major courses, and then study biology, geography, history, politic, physical, chemistry and PE. Pupil’s curriculum is not as interesting as the UK’s and the USA’s, because during school, they are taught music, art and so on .As Chinese students, they have too much stress. They must study hard; otherwise there is no ways to a splendid future.The most attractive point in Chinese education system is that Chinese people emphasize the traditional knowledge, which makes the students have a solid foundation. It is obvious that children in our country learn more in the childhood. But the western students learn slowly.Many schools manage the whole students strictly. Moreover, a large number of teachers are serious and responsible. Students are concentrated in the class and own strong knowledge, which has a close relationship with the success in Olympiad competition.The defects are more in Chinese education system. Firstly, it lacks of cultivating students’ sense of innovation. The reason is that China is adopting the form of the exam-oriented education. Creative thinking, such as feeler guess, adventurous hypothesis and ways of thinking like intuition and inspiration, is the significant term to breakthrough common thinking. The rapid development of technology requires encyclopedia knowledge and breaking through the routine way of thinking. So it can change knowledge to the foundation of creativity. It is important for students to have creativity in society after they graduate. It is common that teachers in schools emphasize book knowledge, promote rote, use a standard answer, do a lot of exercises and cause suppression in personality development. So many students feel tied when they are learning the knowledge, even boring. Therefore, the creativity is out of mind day by day. That is to say, it is not true that Chinese students do not be born with sense of innovation. But it is disappearing under the influence of environment impact. Although it is better after the country adopt the Quality Education, it exists some dissatisfaction. According to survey, eighty percent of the students think Quality Education is not effective. They still consider that the country education does not cultivate the students’ ability. Students have some heavy burden as well. If there is an appropriate environment providing spaces for students to develop their thirst for knowledge, it will improve students’ sense of innovation.Another defect of Chinese education system is that it can not cultivate students’ other abilities. Many students know about the knowledge, but they do not know how to practice in reality.
1.2 British Education SystemIn UK, the purpose of school is to provide children with literacy and other basic skills. They will need to become active members of society, and also socialize. In Britain, one’s courses decided his future. Where you are educated is still very important to your life. And practical decision was carried out by local Education Authorities, located at regional or city levels, which based their policies on local condition while the central government only set broad education policy guidelines and provided funds. Some children go to independent schools run by private organizations, for which their parents have to pay fees. A few go to public schools, such as Eton and Harrow. Younger children may attend a private preparatory school (or pre school) until the age of 13. Some parents may send their children to private schools, even if this is against their principles, because they think that their children will receive a better education. All children must study English, mathematics, science, religious education, history, geography, technology, music art, PE and modern language. Now education in the UK is compulsory.There are a lot of advantages in the system. Teachers in UK cultivate sense of innovation and make the students’ minds filled with questions instead of theorems. Students think about questions by their own, not follow the way of teachers. Teachers let students find the answers themselves. Sometimes, teachers give some appropriate advices, but not all. So if the students are at home, or somewhere, not at school, they can solve the problems independently. The system benefit students a lot, which helps students think like a scientist and achieve a thinking breakthrough. As an old saying goes, “Delegated person to fish, it is better to grant people to fish”. Western people use it efficiently in education. In sum, students in UK live independently, think creatively and innovatively, and well-prepared to go into the society. （Wang Chengxu, 1982）While the system has its own problems, Students show the lax discipline in the class, because the schools do not have a serious attitude towards student, which leads that student is not as diligent as Chinese student. Accordingly, the rate of teenager crime is higher than that of Chine
Chapter TwoTHE HIGHER EDUCATION
Higher education reflected the changes in political policies that have occurred in contemporary China. In general, when universities reopened in the early 1970s, enrollments were reduced from pre-Cultural Revolution levels, and admission was restricted to individuals who had been recommended by their work unit possessed good political credentials, and had distinguished them in manual labor. Deng Xiaoping reportedly wrote Mao Zedong in 1975 that university graduates were "not even capable of reading a book" in their own fields when they left the university. University faculty and administrators, moreover, were demoralized by what they faced.
2.1 The Higher Education in China Efforts made in 1975 to improve educational quality were unsuccessful. By 1980 it appeared doubtful that the politically oriented admission criteria had accomplished even the purpose of increasing enrollment of worker and peasant children. Successful candidates for university entrance were usually children of cadres and officials who used personal connections that allowed them to "enter through the back door." Students from officials’ families would accept the requisite minimum two year work assignment in the countryside, often in a suburban location that allowed them to remain close to their families. Village cadres, anxious to please the parent-official, gladly recommended these youths for university placement after the labor requirement had been met. The child of an official family was then on his or her way to a university without having academic ability, a record of political activism, or a distinguished work record. The commitment to the Four Modernizations required great advances in science and technology. Under the modernization program, higher education was to be the cornerstone for training and research. Because modernization depended on a vastly increased and improved capability to train scientists and engineers for needed breakthroughs, the renewed concern for higher education and academic quality – and the central role that the sciences were expected to play in the Four Modernizations – highlighted the need for scientific research and training. This concern can be traced to the critical personnel shortages and qualitative deficiencies in the sciences resulting from the unproductive years of the Cultural Revolution, when higher education was shut down. In response to the need for scientific training, the Sixth Plenum of the Twelfth National Party Congress Central Committee, held in September 1986, adopted a resolution on the guiding principles for building a socialist society that strongly emphasized the importance of education and science.#p#分页标题#e#Reformers realized, however, that the higher education system was far from meeting modernization goals and that additional changes were needed. The Provisional Regulations Concerning the Management of Institutions of Higher Learning, promulgated by the State Council in 1986, initiated vast changes in administration and adjusted educational opportunity, direction, and content. With the increased independence accorded under the education reform, universities and colleges were able to choose their own teaching plans and curricula; to accept projects from or cooperate with other socialist establishments for scientific research and technical development in setting up "combines" involving teaching, scientific research, and production; to suggest appointments and removals of vice presidents and other staff members; to take charge of the distribution of capital construction investment and funds allocated by the state; and to be responsible for the development of international exchanges by using their own funds. (Liu Shaoxue,2007)The changes also allowed the universities to accept financial aid from work units and decide how this money was to be used without asking for more money from departments in charge of education. Further, higher education institutions and work units could sign contracts for the training of students.Higher education institutions also were assigned a greater role in running inter-regional and inter-departmental schools. Within their state-approved budgets, universities secured more freedom to allocate funds as they saw fit and to use income from tuition and technical and advisory services for their own development, including collective welfare and bonuses.
2.2 The Higher Education in UKThe higher education system in UK can be regarded as the kingdom of the whole world education. It is precise but flexible. So it has its own merits: ⑴ it is profession oriented. The universities realize that helping students to find jobs is one of the functions. So the couses in the college have a close relationship with the society. None of the courses is useless. The managers in the universities know that the rate of taking up an occupation influences the development and future of the universities. For instance, London University which is from an academy in such a few years is a super university because of the high rate of employment. ⑵ the universities are keeping the pace with the age. There are no fixed books for students. Instead, varieties of the books in the libraries are becoming the textbooks. All the contents which the students must learn are decided by the teachers. So the teachers will choose something novel, especially which increases the rate of employment. ⑶ Great capacities. There are few examinations, but students must do lots of course works and presentations, which help them improve the abilities of expressing and creating. Sometimes, there are no standard answers for one question. Teachers encourage the students to think. That helps students master the knowledge well. ⑷ The high quality of supervised systems. If the parents do not satisfy with the teachers, such as the evaluation system, or the content of the course, they can ask the schools to investigate the statement. If it is true, after five times, the teachers will lose his or her job. The teachers can not revenge the parents or the students as well. If not, they will notorious after that. No school would like to accept them. （Zhang Taijing, 1995） ⑸The equality between the students and teachers. The status of teachers is not as high as Chinese teachers. Students always call the given names without the family names. What the teachers worried is students do not ask them questions. If that happens, the teachers will lose his or her job. British people think that the teacher should teach the students because students pay them. So the students need not appreciate that, for it is a kind of equivalent change. But the students can not take up the teacher’ private times. ⑹ The courses are deeper but not spreader. They wonder that a person could do everything well. So strengthening the difficulties of the courses is the point. That will give them a good or high—paid job. Just such education system attracts many Chinese students to go abroad to study, particularly the short period of master, and the quality can be promised.
Chapter ThreeSUGGESTIONS ABOUT IMPROVING CHINESE EDUCATION SYSTEM
From the comparison of the two education systems in China and UK, It is obvious that there are a lot of differences in the systems because of the different cultures concepts and economic reasons. It is previous that we can use the system in UK for reference. Therefore, it could help China to improve our education system.
3.1 Improving the Conception of EducationAccording to the comparison of higher education management system in China and abroad, we could find that there are so many significant differences, in the distribution model of management powers. In the relationship between government and university, the university is the subject of management,otherwise, the government is it in our country; in the relationship between internal administrative power of university and academic power, the academic is the standard in western countries, and the administration is the standard in China. The reform purpose of higher education management system is: the subject of government is transformed into the subject of university and the standard of administration is shifted to the standard of academic, meanwhile, the core of transformation is the change of the idea of "management is service".The officers should know about the purpose of education. The aim of the education is to help students adapt to the society and find a good job. The government should pay more attention on the system of auditing certificate. All kinds of certifications should connect the reality. It is not only a piece of paper, but it represents the ability. So the officers should set some policies to change the present system and give the students enough aims to study, not just for studying to study. There are other ways to improve the systems. The officers might change the management system and help the school to change the class management. The whole system should give the students more space to think, not to learn. It is the way to help students master the knowledgement. The effect will be clear. The governor of The National Education Development says, the most important point today is to make people know the connection between the government and the universities. It is difficult to change the relationship between the two. The government should understand the relationship with the universities and learners.It is positive that the universities change the style of management, especially the steps of management. The most significant point is to change the relationship between the students and universities, teachers and universities. The universities are the servant of the students and teachers. Offering the teachers the best facilities for researching and giving the students more chance to practice are the two important function of the universities.(professor Ding Gang, 2008)
3.2 Improving the System StructureThe main problems in development of Chinese higher education are: single academic education and appraising criterion，stiff education mode and standards products. As references of British education reform, we can strengthen our higher education development from three aspects: rich the views of higher education quality; delaminate universities and appraise universities with multi-criterion; delaminate education and cultivating object.After the reformation of education system, the education departments are more and more complicated. The academic environment seems more important. That is to say, the scientific research of the teachers is the only criteria to weigh the ability of teachers. So if the teachers change the interest of researching to the instrument of making life. The basic aim of education is changed. It is urgent to change the system of education.Improving the popularization of the education is another point. The teachers should not restrict the students’ sense of innovation. Teachers are ought to encourage the students to have their own ideas. We should break through the conventional way of learning. Usually, it is only one answer for the question. But it is the point we should improve, that is we should help the students to think more in the question and find more answers for the question. If any, the teacher should be with the community together to give the students more chances to study in practice. It will help them to learn more and put the theory into practice. If the condition is not allowed, it is possible connect the school and families. That is to say, the teachers tell the parents the importance to practice, and the parents help the students to do something in practice. The equality of education is the point. Teachers and students should obtain a harmonious relationship with each other. But now they are like the emperor and ministers. It is necessary to change the situation. In sum, although Chinese education system is good enough, the system in UK is better, which gives the students enough space and allowance to learn by themselves. It is the point we should use for reference.
There are so many differences in length of schooling, method of teaching and emphasis of education between China and UK.http://www.ukassignment.org/dxygessay/2012/0229/19292.html Both of the two countries have their own advantages and disadvantages in their system of education. Therefore it is difficult to judge which one is better just by the rate of admission. Accordingly, estimate by the number of elite of a society that the system contributes to is much wiser. UK boasts the largest number of the Nobel Prize owner, and their education system was considered as one of the most important factor. The differences which exist between the two languages are completely laid out once a Chinese student study in UK. So many Chinese students choose to study abroad in order to widen their visions. #p#分页标题#e#Teachers in England are always considering Chinese students as assiduity and earnest students. If there in no language problem they will easily pass any examination. Even some students are really common in their daily study, but superiorly performances in the final exams. Chinese students have lest questions and reflections with their teacher in daily study. Whereas, they are the most curious students before the final exam. In the eyes of the foreign students, Chinese students have an obvious difference comparing with the foreign students at the same age that Chinese students seem to be more naive and immature. In foreign students’ opinion, Chinese students are very boring and quiet and they can do nothing except studying and they are also not interested. Compared to that European students are not very diligent in studying but they spend a lot of time on sport, art, activity of a community, social practice and part time job. All these activities regarded as useless activities can train personal ability and comprehensive quality efficiently. All these differences just show the variations between exam-oriented education and ability-oriented education. Nonetheless unfortunately employers value personal ability much rather than the study results in the future job-hunting process. Through the comparison of advantages and disadvantages above, we return to the question when is the most suitable time to go abroad to study , in middle school，in high school or after the graduation in college? The writer’s point of view is that if economic problems are not taken into consideration high school is the best period because high school students are becoming adults who have had the ability to study and live independently. Moreover the education system in China has laid a solid foundation of basic knowledge, as a result of which students can accept the English education very fast especially for language acquisition. This kind of combination of oriental and occidental education is the best education mode.
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