英国法律essay指导 英美概况（英国法律与司法机构 )There is no single legal system in the United Kingdom. A feature common to all systems of law in the United Kingdom is that there is no complete code. The sources of law include (1) statutes; (2) a large amount of "unwritten" or common law; (3) equity law; (4) European Community. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law and civil law.联合王国不实行完全统一的法律制度。联合王国所有法律制度的一个共同特点是没有以部完整的法典。法典来源包括：（1）成文法；（2）大量的"不成文法"或习惯法；（3）衡平法；（4）欧共体法。另一个共同的特点是刑法和民法之间的区别。I．Criminal Proceedings刑事诉讼程序1. In England and Wales, once the police have charged a person with a criminal offence, the crown Prosecution Service assumes control of the case reviews the evidence to decide whether to prosecute.在英格兰和威尔士，一旦警察指控某人犯有刑事罪，皇家检察总署就要接管此案，并独立地审核证据以决定是否起诉。2. In Britain all criminal trial are held in open count because the criminal law presumes the innocence of the accused until he has been proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt. The prosecution and the defense get equal treatment. No accused person has to answer the question of the police before trial. He is not compelled to give evidence in count. Every accused person has the right to employ a legal adviser to conduct his defense. If he can not afford to pay, he may be granted aid at public expense. In criminal trial by jury, the judge passes sentence, but the jury decided the issue of guilt or innocence. The jury composed of 12 or ordinary people. If the verdict of the jury can not be unanimous, it must be a majority.在英国，所有的刑事审判都在法院公开进行。因为刑法认为，在消除合理怀疑证明被告有罪之前，他是无辜的。原告与被告同样平等，审判时被告不必回答警察的问题，不许强迫被告提供证据。每位被告都有权雇佣律师为其辩护。如果他不能支付律师费，可以用公用费用提供帮助。在由陪审团进行的刑事审判中，法官判刑，但陪审团决定是否有罪。陪审团一般由12人组成。如果陪审团不能做出一致判决，也必须是多数决定。3.A verdict of " not guilt" means acquittal for the accused, who can never again be charged with that specific crime."无罪"裁决意味着被告无罪，并且永远不得再以此罪名对其指控。II. Criminal Courts刑事法庭1. Criminal Courts in England and Wales英格兰和威尔士的刑事法庭Magistrates’ Courts which try summary offences and "either way" offences. A magistrates’ court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three unpaid "lay" magistrates-known as justices of the peace-who are advised on point of law and procedure by a legally qualified assistant. A Magistrates’ court sits without a jury.治安（警事）法庭，负责审理判决犯罪，也审理"任意方式"罪行。治安法庭对公众和媒体公开，通常由三位无薪的"外行"地方官–地方治安官组成，由懂得法律知识的书记员和助手给他们提供法律规定和程序方面的建议。治安法庭审察时没有陪审团。Youth Court which try most cases involving people under 18.青少年法庭，负责审理18岁以下青年的大多数案件。The Crown Court tries the most serious offences and ‘either way" offences referred to it by magistrates. The Crown Court is presided over by High Court judges, full-time circuit Judges and part-time Recorders England and Wales are divided into six circuits for the purpose of hearing criminal case. Each circuit is divided into areas containing one or more centers of High Court and Crown Court.皇家刑事法庭。负责审理最严重的罪行和由地方法官提交的"任意方式"罪行。皇家刑事法庭由高级法院法官，全职巡回法官和兼任刑事法官主持。为审理刑事案，英格兰和威尔士被分为六个巡回区，每个巡回区又分区域，每个区域有一个或多个高级法庭和皇家刑事法庭。2. Criminal courts in Scotland苏格兰的刑事法庭There are three criminal courts in Scotland.（1）the High Court of Justiciary;(2) the sheriff court;(3) the district court. Scotland has two types of criminal procedure, know as solemn procedure and summary procedure. In solemn procedure, a defendant is tried by a judge sits without a jury.英格兰有三种刑事法院：（1）高级法院；（2）郡法院；（3）区法院。英格兰有两种刑事诉讼：庄重诉讼和即决诉讼。庄重诉讼里，被告由陪审团和法官审理。在即决诉讼中，法官独自审理，不用陪审团。3. Criminal courts in Northern Ireland北爱尔兰的刑事法庭Cases involving minor summary offences are heard by magistrates’ courts presided over by a full-time legally qualified resident magistrate. County courts are primarily civil law courts. The Crown Court deals with criminal trails on indictment.涉及轻微即决犯罪的案件由治安法庭听审，法庭由全职的法律合格的常驻治安法官主持。郡法庭主要是民事法庭。皇家刑事法庭根据起诉进行刑事审判.III．Civil Courts民事法庭1. Civil Courts in England and Wales英格兰和威尔士的民事法庭Magistrates’ Courts have limited civil jurisdiction, The main courts of civil jurisdiction are County Courts, the High Court deals with the more complicated civil case. Its jurisdiction covers mainly civil and some criminal cases. It has three divisions: (1) the family Division; (2) the Chancery Division; (3) the Queen’s Bench Division.治安法庭只有一定的民事审判权。主要行使民事司法权的是民事法院，高等法院处理更为复杂的民事案。主要包括民事案和一些刑事案，高等法院有三个分支：（1）家事庭；（2）娃哈哈官庭；（3）王室庭。2. Civil Courts in Scotland苏格兰的民事法庭The Civil Courts are the sheriff court and the Court of session.民事法院包括郡法院和巡回法院（最高中心法院）。3. Civil Courts in Northern Ireland北爱尔兰的民事法院County Court are primarily civil law courts. The magistrates’ court also deal with certain limited classes of civil cases. The high Court of Justice the superior civil law court.郡法院主要是民事法院。治安法庭也审理某些有限类型的民事案件。高等法院就是高级民事法院。IV. The Judiciary司法机构There is no ministry of justice in the United Kingdom. Central responsibility lies with the Lord Chancellor the Home Secretary and the Attorney General. In England and Wales, lay magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor who is advised by committees in each county. The Lord Chancellor recommends the High Court and circuit judges. The highest judicial appointments and made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister.英国没有司法机构。中央政府的司法工作主要由娃哈哈官内政大臣和检察总长负责。在英格兰和威尔士，娃哈哈官根据各部委员会的建议任命外行人员为治安官。娃哈哈官推荐高等法官和巡回法官。最高级别的司法官任命由女王根据首相的建议做出。V. Police警察The police service for United Kingdom is organized and controlled on a local basis under the Home Secretary and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Secretaries. London’s Metropolitan Police Force is directly under the control of Home Secretary. Police officers are not allowed to join a trade union or go on strike. They do not normally carry firearms.在内政大臣和苏格兰及北爱尔兰国务大臣的指导下，英国警察分地组建，并以地方管理为基础。但伦敦警察署直接与内政大臣管辖。警察不得加入工会或罢工。他们通常不佩带手枪。VI. Treatment of offenders对违法者的处理The chief aims of the penal system are to deter the potential lawbreaker and to reform the convicted offender.刑罚制度的主要目的是阻止潜在的违法者，并改造已判的违法者。Capital punishment ( a sentence of death ) for murder has been abolished in the U.K, through proposal for its reinstatement are regularly debated by Parliament, and it remains the penalty for treason and piracy.英国已废除对谋杀罪的死刑，但议会仍经常辩论要恢复死刑，判国罪和海盗罪仍可判死刑。英国法律essay指导 英美概况（英国篇6:英国经济)
I. The Evolution of the British Economy since the WarThe evolution of the British economy since WWII falls into three periods:二战后英国经济发展可分为三个阶段：(1) Steady development in the 50s and 60s: The British economy in this period is characterized by slow but steady growth, low unemployment and great material prosperity with rising standards of consumption.战后50-60年代平稳发展时期。其主要特点是经济缓慢而持续增长，失业率低，物质丰富，人民消费水平不断增长。(2) Economic recession in the 70s: In the 1970s among the developed countries, Britain maintained the lowest growth rate and the highest inflation rate, and the high record of trade deficits.70年代经济滞胀。在70年代，英国在所有的发达资本主义国家中，始终保持最低经济增长率，最高的通货膨胀率，和最高的贸易赤字纪录。(3) Economic recovery in the 80s: An outstanding feature of the economic recovery in the 80s was its length, lasting seven years. Another was the improved financial position of the government, with stronger current account of the balance of payments.80年代经济复苏。一个显著特点是时间长，复苏持续了7年。另一个特点是国际收支大大盈余，政府金融地位最高。Measures taken by Mrs. Thatcher’s government to improve the economyMrs. Thatcher’s government took numerous measures to improve the efficiency of the economy during the past decade, using both macroeconomic and microeconomic policies.撒切尔政府运用宏观经济政策和微观经济政策，采取许多措施提高经济效益:#p#分页标题#e#1). Macroeconomic measures were directed towards bringing down the rate of inflation and achieving price stability.宏观经济政策直接针对降低通货膨胀率和维持物价稳定。2). Microeconomic policies were aimed at working with the grain of market forces by encouraging enterprise, efficiency and flexibility.微观经济政策旨在通过鼓励实业，效率和灵活性共同努力提高市场竞争力。Reasons for the British coal mining is called a "sick" industry today.Reasons for the British coal mining is called a "sick" industry today.英国煤矿被称为"生病"工业的原因。Today the coal industry in Britain is on the decline，the number of miners, collieries and the total output have been falling.如今的英国煤矿业衰退，从而导致矿工、煤矿的数量和总产量都大大下降。The reasons for the decline are as follows: exhaustion of old mines, costly operations of extraction, poor old equipment, little investment, fall in demand due to imports of cleaner, cheaper and more efficient fuels, etc.煤工业衰退的原因包括：老煤矿的枯竭，昂贵的提炼费用，破旧的设备，极少的投资，由于进口更干净、更便宜、更高效的燃料导致的需求下降等等。Britain’s oil and natural gas英国的石油和天然气Natural gas was discovered in 1965 and oil in 1970 under the North Sea. Today Britain is not only self-sufficient in oil but also has a surplus for export. The transport and domestic heating systems mostly depend on oil. So does the food supply, because most agriculture is highly mechanized. Modern farming requires things which are all oil-based.在1965年及1970年在北海发现天然气和石油。今天英国的石油不仅能自给自足，还有盈余供出口。交通和家庭供热系统主要依靠石油，因为大部分农业的高度机械化，食品供应也靠石油。Main problems associated with Britain’s iron and steel industry today.如今英国钢铁工业的主要问题。British iron and steel industry is declining for the following reasons: 英国钢铁工业衰退的原因如下：1. Local supplies of iron ore have become exhausted;当地贮备枯竭；2. Old fashioned furnaces for making coke cannot recover valuable by-products;他们生产焦炭的老式炉不能提取有价值的副产品，3. Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills are often separated from each other and thus cannot perform as well as more compact operation;高炉、钢铁厂和轧钢厂经常分开，导致不如更紧凑的企业出效益；4. Many steelworks have to be closed down, causing major unemployment in an area.许多钢铁厂倒闭，导致该地区的大批人失业。The main textile producing regions of Britain are the East Midlands, Yorkshire, Humberside, and Northern Ireland.New IndustriesNew industries include microprocessors and computers, biotechnology and other high-tech industries. There are three areas in Britain which have seen some high-tech industrial growth: (1).the area between London and South Wales, (2).the Cambridge area of East Anglia and (3).the area between Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. The third area is the most spectacular of the three and is now often referred to as the "Silicon Glen". By the end of 1985 half of Britain’s microchip output was estimated to have come from Scotland.英国主要纺织基地是现在的中东部，约克郡和汉伯塞德郡及北爱尔兰。The reasons behind the decline of Britain’s textile industry are:英国纺织业的衰退原因如下：(1) Exports of textiles have not competed well with those of other foreign producers who have managed to produce cheaper goods.纺织品出口不能很好地与设法生产出更便宜商品的国外产家竞争。(2) There has been a rise in cheaper imports of textiles to Britain from foreign producers.英国增加了从外国产家进口更廉价纺织品。(3) Poor and outdated management decisions have caused problem.薄弱及过时的管理决策导致许多问题。(4) Substitutions of human-made fibres have been made for natural fibres.人造纤维代替品已取代了天然纤维。(5) An http://www.ukassignment.org/flessaydx/2012/0406/19397.htmlimprovement of output per worker has been achieved, due to mechanization.由于机械化，每个工人的生产量有了提高。有朋自远方来，不亦乐乎。（P48）It is such a delight to have friends coming from afar.日月光华，旦复旦兮。(P204)Brilliant are the sunlight and the moonlight; after a night a day dawns again.博学而笃志，切问而近思。（P204）extensive scholarship with unyielding dedication and earnest inquiry with close examination民为贵 (P258) People are the most important天生万物，唯人为贵 (P258) Man is the most valuable among all the things that heaven fosters.和为贵（P271）Peace is most precious.英国法律essay指导 和而不同（P271）harmony without uniformity民以食为天 （P321）Food is the paramount necessity of the people.万物并育而不相害，道并行而不相悖。（P409）All living creatures grow together without harming one another; ways run parallel without interfering with one another.前事不忘，后事之师。（P423）Past experience, if not forgotten, can serve as a guide for the future.不患寡而患不均（P544）Don’t worry about poverty, but rather about the uneven distribution of wealth.