I. The Introduction of Jane Austen and Pride and PrejudicePride and Prejudice is the most enduringly popular novel written by Jane Austen. Most of her novels deal with the subject of young girls’ courtship and marriage. Pride and Prejudice is a book about this subject. From her experience of love combination with Pride and Prejudice, we can know her matrimonial value. She advocates the marriage for both love and economic consideration with love playing the leading role. Her matrimonial value influences her creation in Pride and Prejudice.1.1Jane AustenJane Austen (1775-1887) was one of the nineteenth century British writers. She was born in a county clergy man’s family. Steventon in Hampshire, England. She never entered a formal school, but she benefited most from her father who had graduated from St, John’s College, and Oxford. He was an accomplished master of art of reading aloud to the family. She learned a lot from her father’s 500 volumes of large library. She extended her reading particularly in literature and history. The relative comfort and harmony with her family provided Austen opportunities to exert her comic frame of mind in life and to develop her comic talent in her writing. From 1811 to 1817, Austen published her six novels: Sense and Sensibility; pride and prejudice; Mansfield Park; Emma; Northanger Abbey and Persuasion. Her novels described a narrow range of society and events; a quiet, prosperous, middle-class circle in principal surroundings. So her subject matter was limited and most of her novels dealt with the subject of young girls’ courtship and marriage. However this became her own special mode of fiction, the domestic comedy of middle-class manners. She transformed the eighteenth-century novel. It was so surprising that she never married all the life, but her novels described the love and marriage. We could find her matrimonial value from her the experience of love and her novels. She experienced sweet and bitter love. When she was 21 years old, she fell in love with an Irish man. However, The Irish man left her to marry a rich woman. She loved another man at age of 26 but this man died suddenly. When she was 27, with same age of charlotte in pride and prejudice, the heir of a wealthy lord showed her proposal but she rejected him. At the age of 33 she almost got married with a clergy man but no result.From her experience of love combination with Pride and Prejudice, we can know her matrimonial value. She objects to the marriage only for money and status as well as the marriage without consideration for the same background. Her idea is that we can’t marry for money or regard marriage as a game. She advocates the marriage for both love and economic consideration with love playing the leading role. Meanwhile, she also exposes that the essential of bourgeois marriage is a deal of money and a combination of benefit under the patriarchy to reflect the material nature of marriages in the 19th century.1.2 Pride and PrejudicePride and Prejudice focuses on Mrs. Bennet’s obsession with getting her daughters married, three out of five succeeded, the other two also find their proper places. Besides, Charlotte Lucas, Elizabeth’s dear friend, is pragmatic and also six years older than Elizabeth, accepts Mr. Collin’s proposal. Charlotte doesn’t view love as the most vital component of a marriage. She is more interested in having a comfortable home. The main subject in the novel is stated in the first sentence of the novel: "It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife." (Austen, 2003:3) In this statement, she has prepared the reader for a chase in the novel of either a husband in search of a wife, or women in pursuit of a husband. Meanwhile, Austen also expresses that any girl who is born in a poor family would have a strong desire to get married to a rich husband. Pride and Prejudice is a book about this subject. Austen describes different kinds of marriages and people’s different pursuit and attitude to marriages as well. She puts marriage into a variety of social and economic. Austen exposes the essentials of the bourgeois marriage system, that is, marriages are decided by the money and the social status brought by the economic status.II. The Description of Their MarriagesIn Pride and Prejudice three women’s marriages are representative in that period, Lydia and Charlotte and Elizabeth. Lydia’s marriage is on the basis of the lust and beauty and money. Charlotte’s marriage bases on the money without love. Elizabeth’s marriage bases on the both love and economic consideration with love playing the leading role. Material aspects influence not only their lives but also marriage.2.1The Marriage of LydiaAmong all the Bonnets sisters, Lydia is the youngest daughter in the Bennets. She is deeply loved by her mother. She is the first to marry. At first, she elopes with her Mr. Wickham. Actually, Lydia is foolish and frivolous. Although she is fifteen years old, her mind is filled with love. She knows how to get admiration from others. She lacks any sense of virtue, propriety or good-judgment. She is deceived by Wickham’s appearance of goodness and virtue. Wickham is quickly judged to be a perfectly good and amiable man because of his friendliness and the ease of his manners. His true nature begins to show itself through his attachment to Miss King for purely money. Through his elopement with Lydia, deceiving her to believe hat he intends to marry her. He will never marry a woman without some money. He is only willing to have a woman accompanying him for the purpose of sex. Eventually, he marries Lydia just because Darcy pays his debts of honor, purchases his commission, and gives Lydia another thousand pounds. In this marriage, money plays the most important role. Her marriage is on the basis of the lust and beauty and money.2.2 The Marriage of CharlotteCharlotte Lucas has been an intellectual lady, but because of “small fortune” and “without having ever been handsome”, she is an old maiden till 27. The reason she marries foolish Collins is to find a life-voyage destination, to find a “preservative”. She makes no attempt to find a husband whom she loves and esteems, but simply gives in to the necessity of acquiring financial security through marriage. She asks only a comfortable home. Considering Mr. Collin’s character, connections and situation in life, she is convinced that her chance of happiness with him is as fair, as most people can boast on entering the marriage state. In her marriage, as long as she forgets about Mr. Collins, everything will be fine. After having been refused by Elizabeth, Collins quickly marries charlotte. This reflects the miserable fate of women. Her marriage bases on the money but no love.2.3 The Marriage of ElizabethAt the ball in Meryton, where Elizabeth and Darcy meet each other, he is rude to quite Miss Elizabeth. Darcy’s insulting marks of “she is tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me.” (Austen, 2003:14) Upon further acquaintance, Mr.Darcy is attracted by her dark eyes and the "easy playfulness" of her manners and falls in love with Elizabeth. She has pride in her abilities to perceive the truth of situations and of people's characters. However, her perceptive abilities fail her frequently in spite of her sense and good manners. She is deceived by handsome Mr. Wickham, who is quickly judged to be a perfectly good and amiable man because of his friendliness and the ease of his manners. She inclines to believe his story about Darcy. By the end of the novel she overcomes her prejudice through her dealings with Darcy. Darcy does, however, have a strong sense of honor and virtue. Elizabeth’s refusal after his first proposal to her helps him to recognize his faults of pride and social prejudice. For Elizabeth, when she begins to see that she judges Darcy completely wrongly, and she grows ashamed, concluding that she has been "blind, partial, prejudiced, absurd," (Austen, 2003:280) When she visits Pemberley, she can not help thinking of what it would be like to be the mistress of such a beautiful house. She tells herself that she does not regret her refusal of Darcy's proposal, but the more she sees of the house and the more she learns about his amiable and generous character from his housekeeper, After they overcomes the pride and prejudice, they get married and end up happiest. Her marriage is on the basis of the love and the money. But love plays a leading role in their marriage.III. The Causes of Three Women’s Matrimonial ValueWhat are the causes of three women’s matrimonial value? We research the causes from external factor and internal factor and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. External factors from social background include the entail system in that period and women’s education and position in the family. In that period, the entail system puts the unmarried young women in the danger of being homeless and poor upon their father’s death. The entail system makes women depend on men in economics. Women find no opportunities for education but confined in domestic life and to be obedient to their husbands. Therefore they are instructed to be the “Angle in the House”. External factors influence formation of their matrimonial value. Internal factors are characters of three women. Different characters decide their different matrimonial value. The last aspect is the analysis with Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs. Their different needs make them form distinctive matrimonial value.3.1External Factors3.1.1The Entail System#p#分页标题#e#In the Regency period, only the men had the right of inheritance. Women could not inherit land. If women had property before she got married. Her property became legally in his husband after they wed. This was the reason why Wickham tried to elope with Georgiana Darcy, who had $30000. Women could not work or earn their living. If they had a brother, he would inherit the property. Before they got married, they depended upon their father or his brother. Their brother was obligated to provide an allowance as well as board and bed. If they had no son, the estate of the family would pass to the nearest blood relative. This is the entail system. In pride and prejudice, as the girls of the Bonnets, they have no brother and Mr. Collins will inherit the family property, if their father dies. The entail system puts the unmarried young women in the danger of being homeless and poor upon their father’s death. They have to either live with their relatives as a “dependant” or to be a teacher for living. If they don’t marry, they become a burden of family. In general, they don’t hate to be an old maid. In pride and prejudice, when Charlotte Lucas marries with Mr. Collins at the age of 27, her brothers are “relieved from their apprehension of Charlotte’s dying an old maid”. (Austen, 2003:166) Therefore many women are eager to marry just because marriage is the only best route to financial security. To marry man with fortune is considered as reasonable and socially acceptable step under this particular situation. Charlotte and Elizabeth all consider it. It’s rationality to marry on basis of the fortune.3.1.2 Women’ EducationThe entail system makes women depend on men in economics. Adult women find no opportunities for education but to be confined in domestic life and to be obedient to their husbands. Women have no opportunities for jobs due to lack of formal education. In eighteenth century England, women were excluded from attending the public schools or universities. Women received the domestic education, such as doing some sewing or needlework and so on. However, the non-domestic education was often piano-playing, drawing, singing, dancing or speaking modern language. The education is only to increase the attractiveness in husband-hunting. They devote themselves to attracting men. Women just become the attachment of men. Although the Elizabeth and charlotte are all well-educated, they can not be avoiding themselves of this kind of fate depending upon the men. Lack of the academic education and being excluded from professions and politics, women waste their time on accomplishments for sexual allure. Women’s wit and intelligence are suppressed. Therefore, women are confined in domestic life and play the role of the “Angle in the house”.3.1.3Women’s Position in the FamilyBritain is at the period of transition from the earlier stage of Capitalism to Capitalist Industrialization. But the society develops rather slowly in the countryside. The aristocratic families and feudal hierarchies still possess privilege and power. It is very difficult for women of the day to get education and employment. Therefore, they have to choose to be the angle in the family. Women are treated as the ones who could only give birth to children and serve men. As mentioned in previous section having no access to schools for proper education and excluded from any legal rights in politics, young women find no chance for self-support. Because of the entail system, they have no choice to depend on the men. They have to depend on marriage to change their way of life or maintain their own relatively good situation. Marriage is their only way to survive in the cruel world. In regard to married women, their activities are mostly confined within the narrow domestic world. They try to play the role of “the Angle of the family”. Their responsibilities should be centered on the home and contributed daily and hourly to comfort of husbands, parents, brothers, sisters and children. In the domestic life, they are expected to be obedient to their husbands and care of their children. They have never had a mind or a wish of their own. It’s tragic for women in that period. Obviously, it is a luxury for women to marry on basis of love. Compared with charlotte, Elizabeth is lucky. However, Charlotte is in general satisfactory. Marriage has always been her object. She is satisfied to get the role of the Angle of the family.3.2 Internal Factors3.2.1 The Character of LydiaLydia is the youngest daughter in Bennets. She enters the social circle at a young age. She inherits her mother’s beauty. But she also inherits her mother’s silliness and vanity. She becomes more frivolous because of his father’s irresponsibility and her mother neglection. Although she is just fifteen years old, her mind is filled with love, and she knows how to get admiration from others. When Meryton comes some officers, she would go there and tempt them. Lydia has been called “highly sexed” by at least one critic. She lacks any sense of virtue, propriety or good-judgment, as seen in her elopement with Wickham. She is deceived by Wickham’s appearance of goodness and virtue. She even believes that he wants to marry her. Actually he just wants to have a woman accompanying him for the purpose of sex. She is so stupid and silly .She is careless about herself and her reputation. .All of the novel, Lydia was Lydia still. She feels never shyness and regrets about her behavior. “Well, mamma,” said she, when they are all returned to the breakfast room,” and why do you think of my husband? Is not a charming man? I am sure my sisters must all envy me. I only hope they may have half my good luck.” At last, Wickham has to marry her because Darcy gives lots of money to Lydia. Her characters influence her matrimonial value to marriage. Her marriage is based on the beauty and lust and money. Finally she is not happy because Wickham begins to go round with another girl.3.2.2 The Character of CharlotteCharlotte is Elizabeth’s intimate friend. She is very sensible, intelligent girl, but not beautiful and rich. She remains single until she is 27 years old. She is a practical girl. Charlotte has good observation and judgment. After the first ball, Charlotte exchanges ideas with Elizabeth. As they talk about Darcy, she indicates a reasonable analysis towards Darcy’s pride. “His pride,” said Miss Lucas, because there is an excuse for it. One can not wonder that find a young man, with family, fortune, everything in his favor, should think highly of himself. If I may so express it, he has the right to be proud.” Elizabeth also agrees with her words. When they talk Jane and Bingley, she said that it maybe not good thing for a girl to conceal her affection, because in that case she may lose her happiness. It actually proves that Charlotte’s judgment is correct. As a sensible girl, marriage has always been her object. it’s also the good choice for well-educated young women of small fortune. Considering her own situation, Charlotte accepts Collins’ proposal, Mr. Collins is not a conceited and foolish young man. Any woman who marries Collins, a conceited, pompous, narrow- minded, silly man, can’t have a proper way of thinking. Charlotte knows that what kind of Mr. Collins really is. She thinks that at the age of 27 years old, without ever having been handsome. She feels all the good luck of it. As she explains to Elizabeth, “I am not romantic, you know. I never was, I ask for only a comfortable home; and considering Mr Collin’s character, connections, and situation in life, I am convinced that my chance of happiness with him is as far as most people can boast on entering the marriage state.” (Austen, 2003:170) so she chooses a man she doesn’t love. Mothers choose the husband for their daughters not because the man’s quality but the property. At the beginning of the novel the only thing we know about Mr Binngley is a man with a lot of money, but Mrs Bennet has already thought that he is one of her daughter’s husband. If Mr Bennet dies, Mrs Bennet and her daughters are homeless. There is no wonder that the marriage centers no feeling but only financial condition. Mrs Bennet represents the state of mind for “genteel parents” in that period. Her character makes Charlotte choose to accept Mr Collins’ proposal. Her matrimonial value is also some role model of that period. People always think it is the best choice for women. Her marriage is on the basis of money. It is tragic of women in that period.3.2.3 Character of ElizabethElizabeth is intelligent and confident and a keen insight. She has own judgment toward everything. Lydia is invited to Briton by Mrs Forster. Lydia is overwhelmed with joy, but Elizabeth secretly advises her father not let her go. She shows all the improprieties of Lydia’s general behavior. She worries about her sisters and whole family. So she asks her father to do something to stop Lydia, unfortunately, her father doesn’t adopt her advice. In the end, Elizabeth’s worry comes true. Lydia elopes with Wickham. It proves that Elizabeth has a keen insight. Elizabeth is singled out by his father because she has something more of quickness than his sisters. When she asks Darcy to account for his having ever fallen in love with her, he replies that he admires her liveliness of her mind. Darcy begins to be attracted to Elizabeth because “the beautiful expression of her dark eyes” rendered her face “uncommonly intelligent” Mr Bennet and Mr Darcy like Elizabeth for her mind. She is represented as very bright, quick to observe, and quick to form judgment. In some cases she makes wrong judgment for Mr Darcy. She likes to communicate with those with equal mental talent. So she chooses Charlotte as her particular friend. Darcy is attracted by Elizabeth because they are equal intellectual. The debating scenes show the linguistic equality of the speakers. Through their modification which they give each other, they achieve self-recognition and mutual understanding. It proves that her intelligence requires their marriage should be equal in the intelligence. She is also wise. She doesn’t oppose the rich material life. When she first saw the beautiful scene of Pemberhey, she could not help think “They were all of them warm in their admiration; and at that moment she felt that to be mistress of Pemberley might be something!” (Austen, 2003:327) When she visited the park of Darcy, She also could not help saying “and of this place, I might have been mistress with these rooms I might now have been familiarly acquainted! Instead of viewing them as a stranger, I might have rejoiced in them as my own, and welcomed to them as visitors uncle and aunt.” (Austen, 2003:329) She doesn’t know what kind of people Darcy is, she would have regretted her refusal to Darcy’ proposal. Although her marriage is not based on the economy, property is necessary for women at that period. As a wise woman, she knows this point. Elizabeth later describes her happiness in being with Darcy, “I am happier even than Jane; Jane only smiles, I laugh.” and declared that they “are to be the happiest couple in the world”. Because their marriage is not only base on the love and free from the anxiety about finance but also the union of the two intellectual equals.#p#分页标题#e#3.3 The Research from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs3.3.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsAbraham Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970. He was an American humanistic psychologist who was the pioneer of humanistic psychology. Humanists focus on potentials. They believed that humans strived for an upper level of capabilities, and they seeked for the frontiers of creativity and consciousness and wisdom. In 1954, Maslow published Motivation and personality, which introduced his theory about how people satisfied various personal needs in the context of their work. The Hierarchy of Needs model comprises five needs. There are some kinds of needs which can produce some motivations. Maslow also believes that among the needs of people’s hope. There exist some orders and different levels, and behaviors produced by needs and enthusiasm can be derived from satisfaction of needs. He divides needs into five levels. They are physiological needs: air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. Safety needs: protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, and so on. Belongingness and love needs: work group, family, affection, relationships etc. Esteem needs: self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independency, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, and self-fulfillment, seek personal growth and peak experiences. Each of us is motivated by needs and our most basic needs are inborn. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied, we concern with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. If the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away. We are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs. All of these needs are equivalent instincts in animals. Humans start with a very weak disposition that person grows. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied.3.3.2 The Analysis with Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsThe Physiological Needs that are usually taken as the starting point of for motivation theory are the so-called physiological drives. The physiological need is the fundamental need for food, clothing and shelter. People must be able to satisfy this need. The marriage between Wickham and Lydia bases on the impulse of “The Physiological Needs”. Lydia is a frivolous girl. She elopes with Wickham, which is due to being in indulgence in good-looking and sexual passion. Lydia has been called “highly sexed” by at least one critic. Lydia has always been pursuing the sexual passion. She knows how to get admiration from others when Meryton comes some officers. She would go there and tempt them. In her mind, the beautiful scene is that she sees herself seated beneath a tent, tenderly flirting with at least six officers at once. She indulges her sexual passion and get into it. As Maslow describes, when some kinds of needs entirely predominate the human, the consciousness of human moves around some kinds of needs. In this situation, the needs of human become singularity. If the needs of human just confine lower level, the values and world view and the expectation for future have always been in the satisfaction of original desire. Therefore, human hardly connects with nobleness and ideality. However, the expectation of Lydia has oriented the satisfaction for sexual passion. She can’t produce the higher needs. Wickham pursues the women from two aspects. Firstly, Wickham courts Miss King for purely money to satisfy his greed. Secondly his elopement with Lydia, He will never marry a woman without some money. He is only willing to have a woman accompanying him for the purpose of sex. So they finally marry totally on the impulse of “The physiological Needs” We can understand the matrimonial value of Lydia on the basis of beauty and sexual passion.If the Physiological are gratified, it emerges the Safety Needs for security, stability, dependency, protection, freedom from fear, anxiety and chaos, need for structure, order, law, limits, strength in the protection. The marriage between Charlotte and Collins is decided by “The physiological Needs” and “The Safety Needs”. It accords with Maslow’s opinion. Maslow thinks any behaviors are usually decided by some basic needs. “It was the only honorable provision for well-educated young women of small fortune, and however uncertain of giving happiness, must be their pleasantest preservative from want. This preservative she had now obtained.” (Austen, 2003:166) She considers it as the satisfaction for “The physiological Needs” and also the best choice for survival. Collins’s fortune can ensure her future life. When her Physiological needs are gratified, she is eager to get the satisfaction for “Safety Needs”. However, she needs a kind of stable, regular, and common life. If she becomes the wife of clergyman, her daily life can be forecasted. This kind of life can give charlotte an expected, organized, order, world. From the point of view, we should know why she chooses a conceited, pompous, narrow-minded, silly man as her husband. Does she pursue the higher level for “The Belongingness and love needs”? Does Charlotte feel if she lacks fiercely “lover”? The answer is negative. From her attitude to married and unmarried, she never loves him. She accepts his proposal because of her reflections in general of satisfactory. “Mr. Collins to be sure was neither sensible nor agreeable; his society was irksome, and his attachment to her must be imaginary.” (Austen, 2003:166) From her reflection, we find she doesn’t have the impulse for giving the love to Collins. Love Needs includes not only giving love but also accepting love. Charlotte doesn’t expect that Collins gives love to her. Before she knows that “I am not romantic, you know. I never was. I ask only a comfortable home.” (Austen, 2003:170) After she married, she never desired for “The Love Needs”. During her marriage life, “When Mr. Collins could be forgotten, there was really a great air of comfort throughout.” (Austen, 2003:213) From the point of view, Charlotte has hardly “The Love Needs”. Why Charlotte can enjoy the marriage without love. According to Maslow’s opinion, when a person lacks some need for long time, he doesn’t need this satisfaction any more. She has never experienced love. There is no love for long time in her life. She becomes no romantic woman. Therefore she enjoys the marriage without love. Collins’s matrimonial value bases on the satisfaction for “The Safety Needs”. When he makes proposal for Elizabeth, “first, that I think it a right thing for every clergyman in easy circumstances to set the example of matrimony in his parish. Secondly, that I am convinced it will add very greatly to my happiness; and thirdly—that it is the particular advice and recommendation of the very noble lady whom I have he honor of calling patroness.” (Austen, 2003:143) He just needs the legal marriage because of Safety Needs. Collins marries for getting a wife. So Charlotte’s matrimonial value is on the basis of money, but no love.If both the Physiological Needs and Safety Needs are fairly well gratified, it emerges “the Belongingness and Love Needs”. Now the person will feel keen, as never before, the absence of friends, or a sweetheart, or a wife or husband, or children. He or she is eager for affectionate relations with people in general, for a place in his group or family. He will strive with great intensity to achieve this goal. When he or she is hungry, he or she sneers at love as unreal or unnecessary or unimportant. Now he will feel sharply the pangs of loneliness of ostracism, of rejection, of friendlessness and of rootlessness. All people in our society have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based and usually high evaluation of themselves, and this level of esteem needs. The esteem needs include self-esteem of others. They are the needs to feel important, admired, and worthwhile. The people in society usually demand the needs and desires of a higher social stability or firmly unchanged evaluation for a self-esteem and respect from others. The satisfaction of self-esteem usually leads a feeling of confidence and will give the impression that you are valuable, useful, and indispensable and having the power, capability, and a location in the world. Once these requirements have been set backs, it will result in and inferior feeling of being weal and incompetent. The marriage between Elizabeth and Darcy is the combination of love and esteem. Their marriage happens between the Love Needs and the esteem Need. Finally they get their happiness. The background of Elizabeth is similar to Charlotte. Therefore Elizabeth should be eager for the Physiological Needs and Safety Needs. But she didn’t consider marriage like Charlotte as “preservative”. When she refuses the proposal of Collins, she gives up a chance to meet “The physiological Needs” and “The Safety Needs” It shows that her higher level for needs, namely, spiritual needs. To Darcy’s first, lordly proposal, Elizabeth refuses to respond in the role of passive grateful female, showing her special personality. It also reveals her strong higher level for needs. She totally judges him from her feeling. She can’t change her mind because of Darcy’s property and social status. “Could you expect me to rejoice in the inferiority of your connections? To congratulate myself on the hope of relations, whose condition in life is so decidedly beneath my own?” (Austen, 2003:259) Darcy said. “Why, with so with evident a design of offending and insulting me, you chose to tell me that you liked me against your will, against your reason, and even against your character?” (Austen, 2003:256) Elizabeth said. Her esteem needs are so strong that she can’t accept his proposal in spite of her self-esteem. When Elizabeth accepts his second proposal, she is satisfied about the Love needs and the Esteem needs. Their love is on the basis of acquaintance, concern, responsibility, and esteem. He endeavors to bring about the marriage of Lydia and Wickham. “He had done all this for a girl whom he could neither regard nor esteem.” (Austen, 2003:256) “For herself she was humbled; but she was proud of him. Proud that in a cause of compassion and honor, he had been able to get the better of himself.” (Austen, 2003:437) From this, she expresses her respect for him. Finally Elizabeth retorts Lady Catherine, “He is a gentleman; I am a gentleman’s daughter; so far we are equal.” (Austen, 2003:477) From her words, we can find that she meets her love needs in love. Because true love us is the behavior of emotional communication under the esteem and personality.#p#分页标题#e#Even if all these needs are satisfied, Self-actualization needs are produced. Self-actualization can be classified in self-fulfillment of human’s desire, or can be said to be tendency which could realize the potential it has possessed. This tendency can also be described as a particular person who has increasingly become everything for himself or herself. For this standard, people approaching for these needs are different, some people want to succeed in sports; some people want to be a musician. On this level, the difference among individuals is the great. But the man must be true to his own nature. In that period For Elizabeth, the women’s responsibility should be centered on the home and contributed daily and hourly to comfort of f husbands, parents, brothers, sisters and children. But Elizabeth can seek the independence of morality. Namely, her choice for marriage insists on her matrimonial value. She possesses the character of self-actualization for freedom of physiology. Elizabeth’s marriage is on the basis on the love and money, but love plays a leading role in their marriage. By the analysis with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, their different needs make them form distinctive matrimonial value.IV. The Reflection of Material Nature of Marriages in the 19th CenturyThe 19th century marriages represented by the English society exhibits the material nature of marriages at the time and that marriage is determined more by economic factors than emotions.In that period, because of the entail system puts the unmarried young women in the danger of being homeless and poor upon their father’s death. The entail system makes women depend on men in economics. At the time, Women could not have the equal opportunity as man for getting work of the same value. They are the minority weak groups and the appendage of husbands in the family structure of male. The long way of Elizabeth and Darcy, Collins and Charlotte, Lydia and Wickham marched toward marriage is a clear indication that the materials aspects such as social and economic status, impose huge influences on the people’s lives and their characters, including their matrimonial value. The marriage of Collins and Charlotte bases on sole and naked money-transaction, the woman without property does marry a single man with a good fortune, but the husband himself has nothing to do with the enjoyment the marriage bringing to her. Is not it an excellent irony to the proposition at the beginning of novel the “truth universally acknowledged”. Her choice is also some role model of that period. People always think it is the best choice for women. The scandal of Wickham and Lydia can be taken as another instance to illustrate that money is of overwhelming importance in marriage. Wickham has no intention at all to marry Lydia, but for Darcy’s help in secret by using money. In their marriage, money is considered as the factor of extreme importance. After Elizabeth confesses her love for Darcy and their engagement to her elder sister, Jane asks her how long she has loved Mr. Darcy and she answers, “I must date it from my first seeing his beautiful grounds at Pemberley.” (Austen, 2003:501) Though she is joking, we can see part of her feeling of pursuing money. By this thesis, Charlotte’s matrimonial value is on the basis of money. Elizabeth’s matrimonial value is on the basis on the love and money, but love plays a leading role in her marriage. Lydia’s matrimonial value bases on the lust and beauty and money. Because of lacking money, her life is unsettled in the extreme. Money is extremely important in their matrimonial value.By the research into the causes of their matrimonial value, this thesis reflects the material nature in their marriage in the 19th century and we can understand their choices for marriage. Nowadays, women’s status in Britain has been greatly raised. They have the equal opportunity as men for getting well educated and having the same jobs. Since 2002, the percentage of women in the rich has been larger than that of men. To the present day, there are 299,300 women in Britain who have current assets (including cash, stocks and bonds) of more than 200,000 pounds while there are only 271,700 men who have the same amount of fortune. The sadness of the women in 19th century doesn’t exist any more. In the modern society, sometimes marriage is even not the only form for people to get together and take care of each other. 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