2022代写ppt美国网络类essay论文essay：网络知识转移机制分析An Empirical Analysis of tacit knowle
With the advent of the era of knowledge economy , knowledge has replaced the raw materials and other resources has become a key competitive advantage , more and more enterprises to improve their competitiveness through knowledge management , and the ability to effectively transfer tacit knowledge is essential for knowledge management . Since 2000 , under the Cross , who advocate and influence , social network theory and social network analysis gradually introducing knowledge management field .随着知识经济时期的来临,知识已经代替了原材料等资源变成公司竞争优势的关键,越来越多的公司经过知识管理增长自身竞争力,而隐性知识能否管用转移对知识管理至关关紧。2000年以来,在Cross等人的带头提倡和影响下,社会形态网络理论和社会形态网络剖析办法渐渐引入知识管理领域。基于社会形态网络标准样式的知识转移研讨敞开了一个新视界,学者们发觉团体中的社会形态网络状态会影响团体的知识转移,特别是团体中隐性知识的转移。
Transfer opens a new vision of social network model based on knowledge , scholars have found that social networks will affect the status of the organization knowledge transfer organizations , especially tissue transfer tacit knowledge.
The current study is transferred from the main driving force network characteristics and knowledge of factors influencing factors discussed angles tacit knowledge transfer . However, the structural characteristics of the objective existence of the network if the body does not depend on knowledge transfer is difficult to play a role of knowledge transfer activities, and knowledge transfer will be the main subject of subjective behavior and constraints which regulate the network structure. In this paper, the structural characteristics of social networks and the driving force research knowledge transfer tacit knowledge transfer mechanisms subject to the IT industry as the research object , the empirical analysis of the social structure of knowledge transfer networks in the cultural environment of motivation and organizational regulation of recessive the impact of knowledge transfer , and to explore the intermediary role of knowledge absorptive capacity.
Conceptual model and assumptions
Tacit knowledge transfer from the social structure of the network is not simply come to act , it's happening is regulated by several factors , not only the needs of the community network provides certain objective conditions, but also need to have knowledge of the sender , and both sides have the will and motivation contact opportunities and the ability to access certain mass , the lack of any one of the conditions is not possible . In this paper, based on the explanatory variables of social network theory – the social structure of networks and knowledge transfer driving force of the regulation based on variables and mediating variables , comprehensive survey of the impact of tacit knowledge transfer mechanisms : ① analysis of the social structure of tacit knowledge transfer network whether the environmental impact of organizational culture and knowledge transfer is regulated by motives ; ② examine the social structure of the network is affected by the effect of tacit knowledge transfer knowledge absorption capacity. Which structural features of social networks including network density , network centrality, structural holes and network size ; regulate the environment variable is organizational culture and knowledge transfer motivation ; mediating variables knowledge absorption capacity. Preliminary conceptual model shown in Figure 1 :
Network density refers to the degree of contact between each social network members . The degree of closeness and frequent contact between members of the network determines the density . Szulanski (1996) among the various departments of organizational knowledge flow discovery , if no pre-existing inter- departmental some connection or relationship , diffusion and transfer of knowledge between departments is difficult to occur.
Network of relationships between density and knowledge transfer effect is achieved through knowledge transfer regulation of motivation . Between the high density network members frequently interact to form a strong relationship , members are too dependent on the existing network links , thus forming homogeneous networks, namely members of the like-minded , get a lot of duplicate information , which makes the degree of difference between the members is not high. However , internal and competitive, the staff was able to stand out with a competitive advantage, employees must show their higher personal accomplishment , prestige in the network to improve the position in the enterprise , so that only employees have a strong knowledge transfer motivation to more effectively promote tacit knowledge transfer. Scott (1995) , who studied noted that knowledge workers chose to cooperate with each other within the organization , primarily because of Maslow 's hierarchy of needs theory of social interaction , respected and self-realization of these three high-level needs. Therefore, assuming that :
H1: In a strong motivation for knowledge transfer , the network density , the more conducive to the transfer of tacit knowledge .Also in the network, a person's behavior is subject to what they think is appropriate and inappropriate conduct guided . Promote knowledge transfer in an organization , people active transfer of knowledge is considered normative , when the existence of such organizations and cultural environment , tight network will promote the transfer of tacit knowledge .
H2: In a strong organizational culture environment , the network density , the more conducive to the transfer of tacit knowledge .Is the central point to the network nodes and lines starting from this node number . Network Center , a division of high , indicating that the department can establish extensive contacts , the number of linkages with other sectors will be more. Center means that the network structure of the power conferred and status. Network-centric high sectors generally have unique resources or knowledge advantage , and has a high reputation reputation , is seen as trustworthy. For enterprises, the network center sector is often highly senior management , competition also exists between them , network-centric high sectors in order to maintain their top position and competitive advantage, we must maintain and revealed them in the network the prestige and dominance in the knowledge transfer process performed well , thus to prove and show their strength , accumulate and consolidate its good reputation in the network . Therefore, assuming that :
H3: In the case of knowledge transfer and strong motivation , the higher the network center , the better the transfer of tacit knowledge .Positive relationship between network centrality and knowledge transfer between the effects of organizational culture is also subject to environmental regulation . If there is no regulation of tissue culture environment , network-centric high sectors would not choose to transfer their knowledge to other sectors , because such behavior can not be recognized by everyone .
H4: In the case of a strong organizational culture environment , the higher the network center , the better the transfer of tacit knowledge .According to Burr 's point of view , the department occupies the position of the hole with a control structure and information advantages can generate information gain . In the enterprise, is not necessarily sufficient connection between the various departments , but departments occupy the position of structural holes may be linked to other sectors , such overlapping information in addition to the department , you can also access to heterogeneous knowledge of other sectors , increasing their the stock of knowledge , have the opportunity to absorb more ideas and valuable knowledge , help to improve knowledge absorption capacity . Xu Jijun ( 2007http://www.ukassignment.org/mgessaydx/20806.html) in the study also proved able to take full advantage of the network structure of the individual cavities can absorb more knowledge from the wealth of information sources . Therefore, assuming that :
Network size refers to the number of social network contact number . Reagans and McEvily (2003) stressed that the network size can affect people's ability to express the complexity of different professional knowledge , and in large -scale networks can establish a direct link between the departments of many members of the richness of the knowledge network will be improved, also increases the amount of knowledge , Cohen and Levinthal (1990) pointed out that a certain degree of redundancy of knowledge for the development of cross-sectoral capacity to absorb knowledge is necessary. Through large -scale network , members can understand different perspectives and skills to establish a common knowledge base , thus shortening the distance between knowledge , knowledge makes the recipient can easily absorb the knowledge transfer of knowledge providers . Therefore, assuming that :
Self- absorption capacity is the receptor recognize the value of external information , the ability to absorb the information and make applications. Szulanski (1996) found that self- absorption capacity would affect the transfer of best practices within the organization . This indicates that the absorption capacity of individual knowledge and knowledge transfer effects related to the strong absorption capacity will help improve knowledge transfer effect. Szulanski (2000) found in the study of knowledge transfer in the late stages of implementation , the recipient 's ability to absorb the impact of knowledge transfer efficiency. Departments are asked to rely on personal knowledge absorption capacity achieved. Ability to absorb knowledge recipients can easily absorb knowledge , application of new knowledge to improve the effectiveness of knowledge transfer . Therefore, assuming that :
Construct definitions and measurement
Knowledge transfer effect embodied knowledge needs can promptly find the necessary knowledge and knowledge can flow smoothly into the recipient from owners, the effective application of knowledge to the needs of the environment, improve the efficiency of the use of knowledge. Referring to Goh (2001), Marquardt (2002) and Qiuzhao Liang ( 2003) , we use eight items measuring the effect on the measurement of knowledge transfer .
Network density measurement is the quality of knowledge exchange among network members , the focus on the interaction of nature, reflects the extent of the relationship between employees . Network density is higher , indicating that interpersonal social network among the members more closely , more abundant knowledge transfer channels. Network density measurement reference , rjosvold (1998), Shen Yao ( 2007 ) and Zhao Yandong ( 2002 ) study using six measurement items for measurement. The main choice for network centrality measurement network of local centers , and is the location of the center of . Taking into account the individual 's position in the network center position , prestige is higher, with more resources in the network relationship , it is easier to hear opinions from all sides , so focus on the status of your network from the individual level and authority to measure the extent of the network center sex . Measuring holes in the structure , which was operating as a professional interaction between , mainly on whether an individual is in the form of structural holes in different sectors , whether the exchange of knowledge across structural holes , including three measurement items. The main measure of network size reference Zhao Yandong ( 2002 ) for laid-off workers in Wuhan conduct research using the scale dimension of the networks , as well as Batjargal (2001), Powell, Koput and Smith-Doerr (1996) Zhao and Aram (1995) for network size measurement , combined with appropriate changes were made in this study .
Absorptive capacity refers to the network members to identify valuable knowledge and be absorbed , utilization, and their ability to convert knowledge , the measurement items from Cohen and Levinthal (1990), research Senge (1992) Mowery (1996) and other scholars, specific items include five measurements .The main motivation for knowledge transfer to measure three aspects : personal accomplishment , prestige and reputation benefits. Expectations for knowledge transfer after these three aspects of knowledge transfer can be played on individual incentives . Organizational culture environment is in this environment , we are willing to share their knowledge and contribute, knowledge transfer behavior is recognized by everyone . Specific reference measurement items Goodman & Darr (1998), Starbuek (1992) and Leonard-Barton (1995) study .
The study sample from the knowledge-intensive industries – IT industry , Software Park in selected enterprises as the research object because the software park in the enterprise together , more cooperative behavior may occur. Meanwhile , IT industry with technology updates faster , and more tacit knowledge , logical thinking and strong, strong teamwork and corporate personnel constituted mainly by the characteristics of knowledge workers .
Field data collection using paper questionnaires major way , before large-scale distributed questionnaires , the first in a small area of the questionnaire to predict emerging issues on which several modifications. Questionnaires were distributed and 150 were returned 93 response rate was 62%. Recycling of 93 questionnaires were screened to exclude the existence of the missing items and fill in the questionnaire clearly not serious , and ultimately get 92 valid questionnaires , the effective rate was 98.92% .Descriptive statistics of the main part of the sample , including gender , education , age and time in the industry , the study showed that age is mainly concentrated in the 20 to 30 years old, basic education in college or on the overall sample and in line with the positioning of knowledge workers and ideas .
Using Cronbach α coefficient of reliability analysis, including testing the overall reliability of the indicators of reliability , the overall reliability of the variables and the entire scale . Reliability using Nunnally (1978), the standard ChurChill and Peter (1984) proposed , Cronbach d acceptable coefficient above 0.6 , 0.7 or more higher reliability , greater than 0.8 indicates the reliability is very good. To ensure that the questionnaire has high reliability , Cronbach α coefficient of the minimum standards set at 0.7 . Questionnaire reliability test results shown in Table 1 :
Among them, the organizational culture environment Cronbach α coefficient is less than 0.7 , the reliability is not high and continue to test the reliability of the questions of each of the variables found that organizational culture environment reliability fifth of the questions of less than 0.4 , delete the Cronbach α coefficient increased to 0.775 . According to Churchill (1979), Kohile et al (1993 ) and Parasuraman (1988) suggested that all the ItemTotal Correlation is less than 0.4 , and remove the measurement items Cronbacha factor will increase the test items should be deleted. Re- examination delete reliability , reliability organizational culture environment is 0.775 , greater than 0.7 .
Validity AnalysisThat is, the validity of the correctness of the degree of effectiveness , is the measurement tools to accurately measure the extent to measure things. Using confirmatory factor analysis to measure the construct validity of the questionnaire . Before confirmatory factor analysis , the first item on the relationship between factors and measurements carried out tests to ensure that the significance of each factor corresponds to a set of measurements related items. After the analysis result of the adjustment item title , the title key 40 into 39 , KMO value of each new scale factor greater than 0.7, Bartlett test sphere by significant statistic test (p <0.001), the questions of factor loadings were greater than 0.5 . Then these eight variables together, by confirmatory factor analysis to assess the factor structure and concept of the study are consistent with the measurement model . The measured results show title entries each having a relatively high load on the corresponding factor , l shows a high value (typically a value greater than 2 t take significant) . Model fit indices shown in Table 2 :
RMSEA 0.08 or less is generally believed ( the smaller the better ), NNFI and CFI above 0.9 ( the bigger the better ) , the fitted model is a "good" model .
The main advantage of structural equation modeling assumptions inspection of the full model analysis. First, since the relationship between test between independent and dependent variables ( results shown in Figure 2 ) , and then add the relationship between self- examination and dependent variables after adjusting interaction between variables ( results shown in Figure 3 ) . Interaction variable is the independent variable and regulation by multiplying the variable by observing significant changes in interpretation of the role of moderator .
Display model fit better, but not added to adjust relative to the variables have improved to some extent .For the intermediary role of knowledge absorption capacity test , to see the following conditions are met : ① independent variables associated with the dependent variable ; ② mediating variables associated with the dependent variable ; ③ independent variables and intermediate variables. Derived by hypothesis testing H5 and H6 was not significant , that argument does not meet the conditions associated with the mediating variables , so the intermediary role of knowledge absorption capacity is not established. Hypothesis testing results are shown in Table 5:
The outcome of discussions
The empirical results show that under the strong motivation of knowledge transfer , network density, the higher the network center , the better the transfer of tacit knowledge (t = 3.17 and 2.31 , respectively ) ; equally strong organizational culture in the environment, network density and network centrality and tacit knowledge transfer effect significant positive correlation (t values were 2.02 and 2.70 ) , knowledge absorptive capacity is stronger, more conducive to tacit knowledge transfer effect (t = 2.63 ) . Network structure is characterized by the existence of objective conditions , does not directly affect the tacit knowledge transfer effects, only some of the factors that can affect the regulation under the tacit knowledge transfer , knowledge transfer these regulatory factors, including motivation and organizational culture environment , the data in this paper confirm this point. But between structural holes , network size and knowledge absorption capacity is not significantly high , assuming not been confirmed.
Occupy the position of structural holes can improve knowledge absorption capacity is not established , there is a certain relationship with the sample selection . Corporate sector is often divided by function , a clear division of labor between sectors , to do his duty , in the actual work to complete their duties based, it rarely functions can occupy the position of structural holes , structural holes occupy the position of department may only be limited to senior management , senior management because only now have a chance to have contact subordinate departments , in the choice of the sample may contain less senior management staff , thus affecting significantly the assumptions.The relationship between network size and knowledge absorption capacity is not likely to be established in the transfer channel caused by unsound . Network scale, the higher the degree of network knowledgeable , but if an enterprise does not establish a platform to exchange knowledge , even if the network is large, it is difficult to network members through a proper channel to acquire knowledge , knowledge absorptive capacity can not be increased. Therefore, in a large -scale network, establish channels of knowledge exchange , staff will gain a wealth of knowledge to improve their knowledge of the stock of knowledge to shorten the distance from each other to improve knowledge absorption capacity.
This article is recommended for enterprise knowledge management are mainly two points: First, improve knowledge transfer motivation , increase corporate network density. Knowledge transfer is the willingness of individual motivations want to transfer knowledge through certain incentives in order to improve . Companies can develop a series of measures to assess and motivate employees conduct knowledge transfer performance , such as the exchange of experiences will allow employees to work experience or success for everyone to share their own failures and selected outstanding employees incentives to motivate employees active contribution to knowledge . On this basis , companies can be increased by changing the pattern of the office network density , so that all departments have a common office area , forming an open office environment, strengthen exchanges between departmental staff . You can also organize regular or irregular activities for the active participation of employees of various departments , or create some informal means of communication , so that each department employees can communicate with each other outside of work , in order to facilitate tacit knowledge transfer. The second is to create organizational culture of knowledge sharing , building a learning organization , to encourage employees to share their knowledge. To corporate knowledge sharing as corporate culture, and always reflects the culture , so that each employee are integrated into this atmosphere of sharing that knowledge sharing is a glorious doctrine abandon selfish thoughts . In this atmosphere of organizational culture environment , naturally, will be able to promote the transfer of tacit knowledge .