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By August 20, 2022essay代写



Literature Review文献综述

Major factors responsible for selection of ports负责选择港口的主要因素

There are various factors that contribute to key elements in determination of port choice. With the significant impact by globalization of business, ports have obligation to responsible for shipping lines’ requirement on facilities and services in order to retain the competitive advantage (Fleming 2000). As a result, shipping lines act as the key players in determining of the choice of ports (Van de Voorde and Winkelmans,2002 & Slack,1985) Others like Robinson(2002) pointed out that shippers play the important role as well. Furthermore, Robinson suggested that it is vital for ports to act as part of value-driven chain system for trade.有各种各样的因素,有助于到确定端口选择的关键要素。随着业务全球化的显着影响,港口有责任负责运输线的要求的设施和服务,以保持竞争优势(2000年弗莱明)。因此,作为航运公司的选择端口(范Voorde和2002年Winkelmans,松驰,1985),其他像罗宾逊(2002)指出,货主发挥的重要作用,以及在确定的关键球员。此外,罗宾逊建议,端口作为价值驱动链贸易体系的一部分,它是至关重要的。

Most of industry researchers have a common view that cargo flows in either domestic or international trade is concentrated on the lowest cost routes for a given service level. Hence, cost and service are the major factors for ports competition. This view has been supported by Ha (2003), he emphasized that besides the transport charges to and from the ports, the factor that determining the selection of a port was of service factors containing dynamics activities of sailings, equipment availability, associated services, quality and efficiency of handling. Other findings pointed out that port facility; availability and cost are the key factors for port selection. (Fleming & Barid, 1999 , Robison 1998).大多数行业研究员都有一个共同的观点,在国内或国际贸易货流集中在一个给定的服务水平的最低成本路由。因此,成本和服务是港口竞争的主要因素。这种观点已经得到了HA(2003年),他强调,除了运输费和从端口,确定一个端口选择的因素是包含班次的动态活动,设备可用性,相关的服务,优质的服务因素和处理效率。其他调查结果指出,港口设施的可用性和成本的关键因素是选择端口。 (富林明Barid,1999年,1998年罗宾逊)。

Terminal Cost场站成本

The most frequent measurement for competition between different transport modes is cost comparison (J.P.Rodrigue,C.Comtois, & B.Slack,2006). There are three major costs in terminal operation and they present the important components of total transport costs in domestic and international trades. They are infrastructure cost, transshipment costs and administration costs. Terminal costs play an important role for ports options. One of the cost reductions way is to employ IT technologies (e.g. EDI-Electronic data interchange) to increase efficiency. EDI enables to speed up the processing of information sharing, eliminating the delay of paper transactions. Costs reduction has a major impact on transportation and international trade because it not only enables to reshape competition between rivals but also had an effect on transport system from a long-term run view (J.P.Rodrigue,C.Comtois, & B.Slack,2006). However, direct terminal costs do not determine the competitiveness of the ports towards a certain market only. Costs related to port services such as risks and time should be taken into account (Arjen van Klink & van den Berg, 1998).不同的交通工具之间的竞争是最常见的测量成本比较(C.Comtois JPRodrigue,B.Slack,2006)。在码头成本主要有三个,他们目前在国内及国际贸易,运输总成本的重要组成部分。他们是基础设施成本,中转成本和管理成本。场站成本的端口选项中发挥了重要作用。

Integrated transport services (port service quality)综合运输服务(端口服务质量)

The fact that transport chain is viewed as a entire integrated system forces terminal operators to compete with their dynamic services on supply chain (Notteboom,2004). The door-to-door philosophy in market environment has driven the terminal operators to transform into logistics organizations (Klink,1994). They are not simply providing the function of upload and unload cargoes for seaborne transport, but also offering the services including warehousing, distribution and relevant value-added logistical services. Hence, the integration transportation services become the critical factors as ports options from shippers’ point of view.事实上,运输链看作一个完整的集成系统,迫使码头运营商竞争的动态服务供应链(Notteboom,2004)。送货到门的理念,在市场环境推动了终端运营商转变成物流组织(克林克,1994)。To retain a competitive advantage in the global trading systems, the ports are required to meet the ship operators’ needs with all kinds of modern facilities and services (Flemming, 1997). The quality of service has become a major factor to affect customer’s choice of terminals and ports (Ha,2003). The survey conducted by Ha (2003) showed that both port facility and costs groups were ranked highest in terms of port selection, followed by customer convenience, information and location. Haynes, K. E., Hsing, Y. M. and Stough, R. R. (1997) pointed out that the transport efficiency generated within the container port has a direct impact on shippers to gain competitive advantage.Hinterland network腹地网络

Among the transport chain, inland distribution has become a cornerstone in port competitiveness (CEMT, 2001). It showed that the competition between port foreland is heavily decided by the hinterland they served. Based on the terminal’s nature aspect, it serves as a convergent place for traffic coming from roads, railways, or by sea/ fluvial feeders (J.P.Rodrigue,C.Comtois, & B.Slack,2006). Notteboom and winkelmans (2001) and Robbinson (2002) were arguing that foreland and hinterland should be regarded as a continuum, rather than separated and distinct elements. Hence, port, as one node in transport chain, compete with other port relied on its efficiency in connection to hinterland network.前沿和腹地应被视为一个连续体,而不是分隔和独特的元素。因此,港口,运输链中的一个节点,依靠其效率与其他港口腹地网络连接竞争。

Port and logistics integration港口及物流一体化

Terminal operators recognized the fact that transport chain is viewed as a entire integrated system (Notteboom,2000). As a consequence of globalization of economy, the supply chains and logistics models are urged to be more efficient and cost saving. This forced shipping lines, inland transport operators and freight forwarders to reshape their role in logistics process. Furthermore, it brought great challenges to ports as functional nodes in logistics networks (Notteboom & Rodrigue , 2005). Notteboom and Rodigue (2005) pointed out that terminals cooperating with inland freight distribution centers are playing important role in shaping load center development. In recently years, many terminal operators in Europe directly involved in intermodal transport. (Notteboom, 2002).终端运营商公认的事实,运输链被看作是一个完整的集成系统(Notteboom,2000)。作为经济全球化的结果,供应链和物流模式敦促更有效率和节省成本。这迫使航运,内陆运输经营者和货运代理重塑其在物流过程中的作用。此外,它带来了巨大的挑战,港口功能在物流网络中的节点(Notteboom罗德里格,2005年)。 Notteboom Rodigue(2005)指出,与内陆的货物配送中心的终端整形负荷中心的发展发挥着重要的作用。在最近几年,许多终端运营商在欧洲直接参与多式联运。 (Notteboom,2002)。

For example, as the result of rail corridor that connect Italy and Germany, the terminal operators in German offer container carriers more flexibility in liner service and transit design (Alberghini,2002). Finally, many terminal operators have integrated inland terminals in their logistics networks. Port, acted as a logistics organization, has extended from foreland of port to inland terminals. Its benefits contain segmentation of supply chain of inland distribution; improving logistics efficiency; enhancing logistics integration and reducing distribution costs.


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