澳洲指导论文-澳大利亚城市规划演变模式-Australia write essays-Australian city planning evolution mode
Abstract: in this paper, through the introduction of the planning model cities, from the low density suburbanization development of large and JiGeShi at the core of urban structure thinking, to Australia for a half century city planning in the theory and practice to make a comprehensive evaluation.
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of how the theory and practice of metropolitan planning has developed in Australia over the past bring from models which facilitated low density suburban development to contemporary thinking which promotes urban consolidation and poly-nucleated city structures favouring public transport.
Keywords: big city planning; City sets; Sustainable development; Planning history; Australia
Keywords: metropolitan planning, urban consolidation, sustainable development, planning history, Australia
This article is in November 2004 at the Chinese urban planning society established ten anniversary celebration of the appointed exchange theme report
Author: Marcus Spiller, Australia planning association President, SGS economic planning services the company President
Translator: DongFei, wuhan university of science and technology doctoral, employment in wuhan city planning consulting service center.
I’m very fortunate to here with Chinese urban planning association colleagues discuss the present Australia especially big city development strategy and the evolution of urban planning mode.
Therefore the author compared the Macao special in between the two countries facing city of many of the difference, such as urbanization process and the resulting supporting infrastructure investment of the pressure, at present China are far higher than Australia. Although from 1975 in 2002 to in years at an Australian population growth rate (1.3%) slightly higher than China (1.2%), but China’s total population of more than 20 million the population of Australia 65 times above, this means that the urban development policy faces serious pressure. China and the urbanization process and economic development to create wealth synchronous high-end pattern changes. At present, in China only 37.7% of the population living in the city, and Australia have 91.6% of the population living in the city.
China has more large scale cities, such as Shanghai, Beijing, about 14 million people, more than 8 million people in wuhan, and Australia’s largest city, Sydney, only 4.1 million people, relatively small and easy management.
Although there are a lot of different characteristics, the author thinks that the two countries to an extra large city between a comparative study is very important. Because as planning workers faces, is no national boundaries, such as the traffic continuity, the availability of the residential, infrastructure and economic benefit.
1 Australia-highly urbanization country
First the city development see from Australia, in the early nineteenth century almost no now known as cities and towns, the Australian city is in primitive natural land forced colonialism economic masterpiece. Almost from the beginning, Australia to wool and gold of the colonial economy mainly focus on commodity cash transactions, and international trade. Production economic say from broad sense relatively advanced, because such as broker industry, the financial industry, the law and other urban service and other fine work is preliminary already have divided, this is the enterprise development demands oligarchs. The economic structure bring a rapid urbanization.
Australia produce the speed of major international cities is "blink", from birth to 1861, only 25 years, Melbourne in Europe is the colony of big cities in the list, a population of 125000, which was only seven cities in North America more than it, than the same period of it with (1830) found that the population of Chicago. At the time, the Sydney has a population of 96000 people, also belong to world-class big cities.
Today, although the impression of the country is still wide open space, the free walk cowboys and kangaroos, Australia has in the world is one of the most urbanized countries.
Australia urbanization model of another characteristic is a significant proportion of early depends on local resources development of small towns and produce, along with the advancement of product technology and the consumption of resources and gradually atrophic. Like many senior business activities to the big cities and regions on the city center. In a sense, Australia is almost a kind of flow mode of urbanization, according to a big city (usually state city) and the country, this is also an extra large city into the strategic planning Australia one of the reasons the first programming problem.
The impact of the first two big cities
The 19 th century to the early twentieth century, in Australia about urban design, the land division, neighbourhood in public health depends on the structure of the law regulation to solve segment, main is to ensure that effective transport system, all kinds of public facilities of the accessibility and function of the conflict between the land for effective separation etc.
Australia early overall planning progress of the legislation of the Anglo-American model is greatly influenced. Britain’s garden city sports is widely accepted, it focused on the type of villages and self-sufficiency, independent units way of life. The American model with strong influence, especially it to as a guarantee of the development of the city ZhiXuHua effective means-" division "advocates, districts for residents, investors, infrastructure providers and so on various aspects provides certainty. American architects and city planners are also affected Australia early on urban development ideal pattern discussion. Among them with based on "prairie school" (tower Essen) Chicago school of advocate of low density and the nature harmonious suburbs model is the outstanding. "Prairie school" theory of the influence of Australia in wright-phillips protege walter he Griffin (w. Griffin) to Canberra evidenced in new town planning, presently for Australia’s federal government capital. The planning scheme in 1911 by the international solicitation contest winner. Yet still reflect Canberra Griffin, and his partner, Marion Mahoney’s pursuit of first principle, which based on the natural suburbs construction, private cars out of the residential action leading, harmonious sex, etc.
In some sense, these argued vehemently influence early planning practice of Australian overseas theory originates from the "old world" of the strain of industrialization and "dickens type" the creation of the city. Urbanization results show some of the complexity, namely on the one hand shows the efficiency of large-scale product, but on the other hand, the but again persecuted employees must adapt to not health, ugly, and even some unfavorable social conditions of existence. These emotional brought a certain degree of "the counter urbanization", this is a kind of industrialization of urban life before the desire to return, because it is more simple, clean city structure, economy, society and environment, better balance.
Although in urban planning legislative process never explicitly support the counter urbanization view, but the author thinks that it is still by far the most popular in Australia suburbanization city model, to lay the foundation. Such suburbanization city pay attention to create private living space of the harmonious sex, namely in each built on land have bigger garden space independent residential, fresh air, the city industrial and commercial pollution caused by security isolated and trouble.
3 after the second world war-suburbanization big cities
Because the rich resources of commodity prices and has advantages of postwar economic keep Australia continued prosperity. Especially wool, mineral, beef brought the competitive export income make the government can implement a height of the enterprise policy of local protection. The tariff barriers in solid under, such as the car, heavy industry and other manufacturing to rapid development, especially the Victoria (capital for Melbourne) and south Australian (capital to the Adelaide), large-scale public housing develop, rapid expansion for the enterprise workers provide shelter. In fact, when the labor demand is very intense, so much so that the Australian government carried out large-scale immigration plan, encourage the European and British skilled or rare workers emigrated to Australia, a large number of immigrants is special preferential policies by the government worry.
From after the second world war to the early 1970 s, Australia is a conservative in name of system of government, it has been practices a welfare policy, through the bank financing department adjustment, the government to the building owners, small industry and commerce owner and provide farmers of the infrastructure and public service, completely from tax and finance income. In this period of "great prosperity" period, wealth, growth opportunities throughout the field and widely distributed each class.
From the perspective of city development, and the period of performance characteristics in a private house home buyers and with the rapid popularization of private cars, the combination creates the suburbanization city. All of the center big cities are breaking the original structure of fixed-a long-term public railway traffic system supported by regional development structure. Urban space to the public traffic can be involved in the regional unbridled ground is rapid and outspread, many productive farmland and beautiful scenery of the landscape was gradually nibbled away. Of course, the financial supply infrastructure configuration in the city expansion in sports and play the role of cannot be underestimated. Additional infrastructure expenses are paid by taxpayers, and is not new area owner direct burden. Although the population for new for these basic facilities relatively lags behind, but they can be greatly lower than the first real estate FeiCaiZheng support infrastructure have booth expenses, and the owner can easily private-property over pay area needed for construction with the high cost of barrier.#p#分页标题#e#
Big cities to the construction land invasion expansion is the economic strength and the product of distribution policy, and responsible for big city transportation responsibilities in the function of the city public transportation as a share of sharp atrophy; To meet the requirements of the private cars travel service, retail business facilities layout changed accordingly, each place to park convenient or not has become the primary factor. The business center of the layout of the more and more dispersed, "big box" like large shopping center (mall) in "the city" all areas of the rapid proliferation.
澳洲指导论文Four of the great cities of the post-war planning mode
Generally speaking, the postwar Australia center city planning and the basic strategy to illicit car travel primarily mode of city development is consistent, the main task is to "predict and provide" road space and population and wealth growth of supporting the infrastructure, the consumer price system management and the requirements of the institutional reform less. In urban planning in research in engineering and construction materials such as planning concept was dominant, but not on the study of economics and sociology. A key city planning is how to keep the issue of urbanization area "ecological space", and was later as the old city center the downfall of management research; This decline is eager for a county of rural life of city residents as a result of the flight. So many cities started an overall reconstruction of the old city "slums" area.
The concentrated this period the main principles of urban planning. The development of large area broke through the past public traffic limit city boundary. Planning the goal is not to restrict the city development area expansion, but to guide urban assigned economy corridor development, and reasonable layout of the new infrastructure, ensure the populace to the wedge of green space with. Australia is a supplement to the corresponding several big city city development planning corridor, it includes mainly in a quick network traffic system planning, old city history protection, urban public green space, waterfront landscape special planning. Because many experts believe that "le le corbusier," model of urban renewal construction can bring it to function, become more advantages than new district of charm.
5 after Australia industrialized cities
As the continuing boom in post-war economic, make the government have the power to real estate buyers of the implementation of the preferential guarantee, using tax funding infrastructure supplies, which has caused "sprawl city"; Corresponding to the trend of economic globalization, the Australian economy structural changes in the big cities to the planning concept of important adjustment and change happen.
From the late 70 s on, of daily necessities of Australia mainly economic growth has been difficult to support the standard of living of the secondary industry and the long-term protection. The government has already realized must reform, improve the productivity and rich variety of products export, etc. From the 80 s to the early in the short term implemented a series of economic reform, including a floating currency and reduce the country’s intervention in the banking system, greatly reduce manufacturing tariffs, in infrastructure supply system of the commercialization, stock system reform, and even privatization (such as telecommunications, ports, aviation, electronic, water supply, etc.), relax centralism fixed wages system. So you are to the whole society directly to the Australian economy globalization brings the competition and opportunities.
Reform in the big implementation within, the economy to develop by leaps and bounds, can say a time and experience Australian small "economic boom". However the social and economic structure adjustment had to transcend an expansionary city development of consciousness, the change of the changed forever. Only a few people in a company or government agencies have long-term stable work, most people are employed by multiple jobs, and need on the workplace and all kinds of changes and opportunities seriously contemplating options, including all kinds of professional training, re-education opportunity. Therefore, the national labor ratio gradually narrowing.
Although the momentum of economic growth is strong, but economic growth is not completely dependent on government regulation. Some still rely on commodity export area, because the product price generally fall in trade activities not only lost a large income and job opportunities, but also must abide by many government agencies and the revocation disappears with service. With the idea of the early postwar years planners contrast is that many of the knowledge economy and high class had been gathered in the suburbs of the old city immigration as slums, a very popular place of leisure, cultural innovation of people gathering place. City center house prices have much more than once more by people suburban housing prices.
The core of the traditional family: father, mother, two children, no longer habitat urban population statistics dominance. Single family became the fastest growing family type. Because many new family divorce rate and the relationship between the increase, there was more single parent families, and homes increased accordingly. Children left home before independent than late, and when they prepare accumulation will extend stay in new home was his parents’ home of time. These trends non-traditional means that the growth of the door model the trend are much higher than scale of development of the total population. It also means that the market requirement product kinds of diversification, need more high-rise apartments, touch layer apartment and other medium density residence form, and the past market has been family dwelling place independent governor.
6 city income
Economic trends in forging living characteristics and the change of the place of employment, and many other external factors also prompted the city planners to rethink the urban development strategy. Especially after large-scale drought, Australia each city to water resources protection and the limitation of the understanding of the special. And as the government and the society to each level traffic also pay more and more attention to and realized that if countries want to accord with the global development need we must improve the traffic situation, and effective and greenhouse, all kinds of harmful gas.
In these micro level of innovation while at the same time, the environment also makes urban infrastructure layout and construction fund source model of change, instead of s ~ s "prediction and supply" is a way to the requirements of the management strategy, the specific performance of the ownership of the right in the distribution and use the adjustment of the price.
For example, now the edge of town development new investors must pay supporting infrastructure construction of most of the expenses. Although the cost will eventually pass on to house buyers, but this is, after all, a more accurate price signals, namely dwelling place for the urban district of social interest costs are much higher than the finished in city development of compact dwelling place corresponding charge. So, while the city is still continue to the peripheral development, but its development will greatly reduce the rate, and development structure more reasonable.
Australia’s major cities in the urban planning for new economic role of change under showed great similarity, especially population change and environmental restrictions. In the past five years or future possible execution of planning and development strategy basically has the following characteristics:
Urban development boundary (shown below) on one hand is to ensure that the introduction of a certain percentage of the ecological space, on the other hand is due to illicit car traffic development model of the suburbs external negative effects, such as traffic, exhaust emission, traffic accident, can not directly blamed on the development of private cars. Another way is to limit the urban development need land supply, so the development new price can be right shows construction and development of the impact on the environment. City limits of the border also support the new development of local traffic.
At present the center city new planning of another focus is to reconstruct the existing urban context-post-war boom internal cause long-term land cheap, cheap form situation-disuse ironically, these characteristics of the urbanization is a place where the garden city sports and prairie school were trying to avoid. As in the new zone development range reengineering zhong xin, make it become the "leisure culture" and "European" the center of the humanities public activity center territory. Do this important goal of, is to provide important activities in return for public transport node construction investment, for the whole society to provide more consciousness on road space, and can not solve the urban traffic sustainable development needs; Another goal is to make the "new economy" wave spread to the suburbs, let more people enjoy the benefits of globalization. And the past development policy tend to lead to the central city formation characteristics and life quality, employment fringe area economy fully the development of fragile split crisis. Is this, Australian city and the United States is a great city is different.
7 the city set of "response force"
The development of the urban planning policy dramatic change inevitably led to a "social response" to the impact. Although widely based on past understanding social fields unlimited expansion policy super city development of unsustainable, but local government at all levels are still in the development of urban development to spare the process of implementing, and intensive utilization of land back way and relax.#p#分页标题#e#
The "social response force" mainly in Australia center city planning the next phase of the challenge. These challenges are not completely refers to the preparation of town planning, and more is to point to the implementation of the planning around the government structure. Most of the Australian city in many years ago in repealing independent outside of government center city planning committee, this is a disadvantage factors, such planning have more political, and the social public to the sustainable development of city management in appear more difficult.
More on Australian city planning discussion mainly concentrated in the institutional reform, that is to keep city of sustainable development in various kinds of interests request, how to fairness, effectively balance (as the above listed city limit principle reflects the), how in 1950-1960 s form of low density neighborhood living environment and the 1970 s of the formation of the balance between big cities megalopolis.
澳洲指导论文Australia is now in a big city planning "Renaissance period". Nearly 2 to 3 years, Australia’s big cities are in the update urban overall plan or reworked center city planning. Without exception is all the overall plan of the city are required to limit city outward expansion, advocate efficient public transport system support more than the nuclear structure mode of city development. These strategies reflect the big city planning concept and post-war planning sector long reign of thinking from basic, such as urban expansion, the fact of transportation etc mainly urban development pattern. The transformation of the notion of thinking greatly alleviate the city continued development goals and local individual wanted to keep low density suburbanization life harmonious sex of conflict. Australian city planning the next phase of the main task is to adjust the government structure with a constructive solution to the conflict over the city.