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By August 20, 2022essay代写



National cohesion is the content of the ethnic psychology, was one of the main components of the national consciousness. For the development of national cohesion and ethnic and national evolution, self-relianc and independence influence. At the same time, different stages in a nation’s development and have different performance, affect it in the factors changing. This article from the perspective of social psychology of national cohesion experience and performance analysis, the paper discusses the influence national cohesion forming and development of the factors.

社会心理学essay范文Identity; National cohesion; Social psychologyAbstract:In national psychology,national cohesion is one of the essential contents national consciousness discusses.National cohesion produces an important influence upon a nations development,evolution,self-relianc and independence.Meanwhile,it has different manifestations at different stages in a nations development,and changes take place in the factors that affect if.This paper makes an analysis of the manofestations of national cohesion in the perspective of social psychology,and has a discussion about the factors that affect the formation and development of national cohesion.

Key words: sense of approval, national cohesion, social psychology

According to Stalin’s discusses, national history can be especially in certain geographical areas of the form, and have the language, economic and cultural characteristics of the stability of the group. As people a type of national community, and other people community are different. National different from racial, ethnic belongs to the social historical category. (1) is a group of national people living symbol, is also a group of people with the same blood relations symbol. Therefore, in social life, people will always a nation as the main body of the activity. There will be national and its member integration, and will be of the ethnic groups view of each empathy by members of the body, is the national members and subordinate the nation as a whole. However, people in different development stages its basic characteristics and connotation is the change, the concept of Stalin’s about the national reflects in the national formation and development of the essential characteristics of the early. No national community common areas, and the common language, common social life and on the basis of the formation of the stability of the common psychological quality, to form and national development.

Along with the social development and the evolution of the nation, a national of the basic elements also is in produce change. As the famous contemporary national experts Mr. Yang j points out: "with national development, especially in the national development and prosperity stage, to the national culture and national consciousness start great role. And in the third stage, namely the convergence and melt stage, its foundation is no longer regional and social, and mainly is the culture. To some extent, at this stage, the national community is a super regional scope, ChaoSheHui unit of the community culture in national development, maintain a leading even the decisive role". (2)

Psychological culture as an important part of national culture to cause the attention of people, as an important part of the study of psychology. In a national consciousness, the national self-esteem, national cohesion in the key position, and national cohesion is a national consciousness one of the main content. National cohesion is making the nation and its members keep in national groups within the centripetal force or force, also known as the national cohesion. National cohesion is with the national characteristics, the formation of the national culture development, national awareness of growth and to formation and strengthen.

Can say, group cohesion is the key to power group, is to promote the power of the working group. National is a large groups of one of the form, we will this community called family body, so the large groups of all general principle also apply to the national family body.

According to the American psychologist put ting, case (L.F estinger) to the definition which group cohesion, ethnic group cohesion should be to make the national members keep in the national group within the joint effort, or make people gathered in the ethnic group in the emotion, exactly, is a kind of the member for some people, than other people feel more close emotional. National cohesion is to make the national prosperity of the adhesives, so want to make national prosperity, we must improve the national cohesion. (3) overall, the culture of a nation for the national cohesion of the formation and improve plays an important role.

About national cohesion of social psychology research involves the content are many, and from our national cohesion experience and the performance and the main factors of influence national cohesion two aspects of analysis.

A national cohesion, the experience and performance

National cohesion with its internal and external form experience form. Internal experience is a kind of psychological of internalization of from the reaction, and external performance is the identity of internalization reflect form.

1. Identification is a national cohesion of the psychological experience

Should say the first to use "identity" of the word is psychology master Freud, and in his defense mechanism theory pointed out: "identity to show individual and others, group or imitate characters in the emotional, psychological convergence process." (4) and he put the identity as individual and others have the emotional ties earliest form. National identity is the national community members in the cognitive and evaluation to maintain consistent emotion, is a racial body consciousness, this identity often can influence each other, the effect is subtle. The same ethnic members are often common identity, while the effect of this influence is often unconsciously, even "knee-jerk" or "not conscious".

At present the main use two kinds of research strategy of national identity, a sociology is the social psychology research strategy, one kind is the psychology of the social psychology research strategy. The former from sociology and cultural anthropology perspective, or national members from our national culture, language, religion and customs of the attitude, mostly using questionnaire, understand the national members this ethnic identity and cultural attitude; Or from a case study obtains, aided by the ethnography of research methods, through the material object to collect and mythology, history biography, biographies of analysis to study national identification. The latter view from psychology, based on general use of the experiment and scale method, and divided into groups and the group within the group, through the experiments were understand internal and external group member group the attitude of the group, and then discusses causality. (5)

In the national community in daily life, national identity is a kind of emotional exchange and communication needs, help the national members mutual understanding, mutual communication and.

National identity in the national community development in two aspects of meaning, that is positive and negative meanings. On the positive side, ethnic identity can strengthen the connection between the national members, making the nation can mutual cooperation between individuals, help each other, can promote national cohesion, arouse national internal drive, promoting the coordinated development of this nation. Instead, national identity of negative mainly displays in some national in some aspects of the exclusive and to follow sex. Due to long-term relationship with emotional identification, when different between the national community or national between individual conflict, has formed the identity of the psychological sentiment will often showed emotional, even with emotional instead of emotion, appear in judgment and behavior of the standing on deviation, which affect the solution of the problem, or even also affect the relationship between peoples.

As for it values, the ethnic traditional culture that is the core of the national identity and cultural values. Values is a social or groups of people community have in common things good and bad, distinguish between right and wrong, accord with and against the wishes of the people, to be done by the practical and ideas. Values is a cultural system foundation, a value system can be constitute a national "cultural spirit," the core. In the Chinese nation’s long history of development, gradually formed the national the common values, its core is advocating patriotism, in order to safeguard the unity of the motherland, for the Chinese nation’s sense of honor against external aggression…… . Such values are the whole Chinese nation identity, seepage in each nation’s way of life and every member of society of behavior. At the same time, "the nation in common identity outside the values, and the national identity of the traditional concept of value, namely the accumulation of load as traditional ethnic attachment and faith." 6

National identity is the premise of national cohesion and performance, a people strong cohesion is up in the nation’s identity.

2. The group is national cohesion of the external performance forms one of

The group is actually common attributes and animals, in the higher mammals, we also can be observed in the group of animals. People can’t no group of, because "alone" will make people feel safe not guaranteed. But only in the group to protect each other, to live more satisfied. For national individual character, the group we also call it belonging. From maslow’s hierarchy theory of needs analysis, ownership and the need of love is one of the basic needs. 7 have the inevitable will reference to the group, and group is varied, the type of joint activity is mixed, but, for the social psychology research and practice, it is especially important that the group activity type, of which the interdependence between the participants at their maximum. You can find many production group, which is linked together for the purpose of the medium, but the nature of the event is the individual. This kind of activity from belongs to individual character, the whole community and society, this is a kind of common labor. About the labor Marx think: "people in production not only with nature. If they don’t happen relationship in a certain way to combine activities and exchange their activities, and not for the production. In order to perform the production, the people then has certain communication and relationship; only in these social contact and social relations, within the scope of the will have their relationship to nature, just can have production". 8)#p#分页标题#e#

Form interaction people’s personality, including personality traits of a factor. And about that rubenstein think: "in the long term in the association interactions each other people often in their character set up a significant brand; and in some cases the personality characteristics seems to be happening the exchange and mutual similar; due to long live together, sometimes people will share common features; in some ways become resemble each other". 9) when the communication has a lot of interdependence (such as: parents-children) and they separated from the social environment and alone, the quality of the master of character is more obvious.

社会心理学essay范文Study the isolation of independent group is extremely important, because many common activities are actually from usually the physical and social environment, the exploration, the sea of seafarers on board the shuttle and the personnel. Group sex, the autonomy of isolation effects because of physical conditions will worsen and strengthened. Nervous factors play a dual role: to strengthen the unity of the group or weaken. The extent of the independent groups may be done in the conflict situation in its behavior nature. If a group of autonomy is high, the conflict will "pointing to" an external object (for example, do not belong to the group of one person). In the joint activity conditions conflicts may, for example, pointing to the instrument, if the instrument for external group evaluation factors of words, community autonomy is poor performance in the conflict between members. ⑩

Social isolation for people I feel role than physical isolation may be more big. Groups of autonomy may not only is the result of physical conditions, and is the result of the social psychological conditions inside and outside. For this performance a consistent group with other groups if necessity, collective interaction, sometimes will show a self-centered intent, performance to "not this group" members of the offensive.

For individual character, "alone" the most vulnerable to bully others, both for the individual psychological feelings or survival, groups of belonging to anyone is quite important. General only allows individual groups to the enemy attack group out, and the community each between the molecules, is not allow these malicious offensive there. Because the relationship between each other so it caused the measured cohesion, produce the increasingly large group power or group cohesion, the group has the hostility of the character or group to dare not to infringe upon. Because of this, the human in the period, I don’t eat by beasts. In the later development, and differentiation, the fusion, the composition of the tribe, tribal vary in size, nation and state. [11]

The hui nationality in China as an example, the fourth largest in China national and 10 islamic one of the ethnic minority groups of the hui nationality, has a population of 8.6 million (1990 statistical), an autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and 2 11 autonomous county and a large number of nationality township. "The hui people put yourself in mosque (Masjid) as the center of the community called ‘zhe marr rapture (Jamaat),’ this is Arabic, meaning, is’ collective, unity, gathered, community, free translation is’ ‘temple fang fang hui nationality." temple is the religious community, the society is in addition to the general community characteristics outside, relied more on common of the maintenance of the religious culture.

West is solid for areas, a specific individual members of the hui nationality always belongs to a specific temple fang (Jamaat), the specific temple or mosque relegated to a lane islamic sect; In addition, the hui of individual at the higher level identification with hui "of historical materialism and Islam ‘firm m’. [12] the hui nationality in the individual members of the real life, ‘firm m "and" hui "concept is certain, but also be more abstract psychological ownership,’ sectarian ‘and’ temple fang ‘is concrete and vivid. "[13]

Second, influence on the main factors of national cohesion

For a nation is concerned, influence factors of national cohesion is varied. With national development historical reasons, have natural geographical environment factors, and religious belief and other reasons. Here we influence of national cohesion of the main factors on analysis.

1. The natural ecological environment as the national cohesion offer mental physical fields

Natural ecological environment is the survival of the nation "soil", is also a national cohesion to the formation and development of psychological physical fields. By extension psychologist lewin in physics from the concept of reference for reference field of mental life, it is the concept of the field with physics there is a relationship. Lewin on the definition of the concept of games when Einstein had quoted about the definition of a: "field is the fact that the whole depend on each other." Lewin thought that man’s psychological activity is in psychological field has occurred. "Psychological environment is to point to be we realize our psychological and incident actually occurred influence environment." [14] natural ecological environment quality and ethnic and the response of the quality of these conditions, not only decided to national way of living, and affect the national open up the courage of survival road confidence, the influence of the external environment fight the formation of character. Natural ecological environment on the influence of the national spirit in ancient society under the condition of the underdeveloped productivity has great effect, and the modern society is for the development of science and technology, raise the level of productivity, changes in the structure of social production and other reasons, the influence of it has been weakened.

Natural ecological environment of each national national consciousness, national groups the effect of the personality problems have long been a western scholars’ attention. Early in the eighteenth century, enlightenment thinkers will consciously seek different species, human form national groups the cause of the personality. The enlightenment of the theory of evolution in early, botany, zoology from study of enlightened: different terrain, climate, soil, plants to different growth form, function, characteristics. It can be concluded, natural ecological environment of national cohesion is the formation and development of psychological physical fields.

Natural ecological environment on the influence of the national consciousness is very obvious. Hegel’s points out: "help into the spirit of the nation, the kind of natural produce contact is the foundation of the geography, natural connection… seems to be a external things, but we have to see it as a ‘spirit’ performance to the site, it also is a kind of major, and the necessary foundation." [15] "what we notice, and not to have the people of the land occupied as a kind of outside of the land, but to know the place of natural type and grow in this land and the type of people’s character are closely linked." [16] Marx, Engels pointed out: natural conditions "not only restricts the people first, naturally produced in the body tissues, especially the difference between their race, and until now still restrict the organization’s whole body further developed or not developed" [17]. In Hegel, Marx’s "people and the environment opposition integrity", particular attention is, they are very prominent the main initiative and conquer, transform natural struggle spirit, also is the human fight for survival and the display struggle spirit. In Stalin’s definition of national, "common regional" as a measure of the core factors of a national, regional or national visible to survive the natural ecological environment in national formation and development of the indispensable role and psychological function material.

Can think, natural ecological environment is the material basis of national survival and environment foundation, is the national cohesion forming and development of the psychological physical fields.

2. The national community consistency is the point of national cohesion in

The national community cohesion, not only based on mutual trust and mutual members of equality, mutual sincere help, also based on ethnic members of Shared experience. Among the members of Shared experience will make the national members together on the same thing the profound comprehension of the produce and experience. Members of the common knowledge and experience between still can make the danger of TongShengSi members produce emotion. All this will eventually make the national members form of demand and motivation affinity with each other. This demand and motive is to make the national members help each other, closely connected with the inner motivation is to strengthen the nation group cohesion psychological motivation.

By psychologists lewin extension of his life space concept used in group psychology, think "as individual and his behavior form ‘psychological field’ [18], groups and its environment is to develop social games. Social behavior had been as occur in the existing social entities, also was seen as from the existing social entities, for example, members of the group, the obstacle and channel, information. Therefore, group decision within a particular time in the behavior of the entire field of the existing situation" [19]. The characteristics of ethnic groups and decided to national individuals, the characteristics of the individual and the group maintenance and constraints. Individual role in groups, group restricts the individual. Both interaction, mutual influence, and both have formed a has the characteristics of the whole nation power structure. This can be used to explain many national safeguard the national language, apparel, customs mentality, except for a national unique aesthetic view and the reasons of the emotion to achieve national groups consistent, safeguard national cohesion is one reason. Many national gathering like sports competition, traditional cultural activities and other beliefs rally, etc, no doubt, is to realize national identity, increase the national cohesion of some of the important and effective pattern of activity. Such as: the Mongolian festival, dai’s water-sprinkling festival, etc.#p#分页标题#e#

The national community and society and other ethnic groups in the interactive development, must want to achieve certain goals, the competition is a must. But members of the competition between each other must be equal, from the point of view of the group and must be cooperation, the development of the nation is by the two factors of interaction, and the constant competition and cooperation is to promote the coordinated development of national the inner power of one.

From this we think, nation in some degree of consistency, such as in the national common interests, religion, national language, culture, national tradition, and custom is national cohesion of the breed of soil.

3. National development history of temper is national agglomerate strengthen content

For a nation is concerned, after thousands of years, the development history of experienced countless the ups and downs, and a nation in the history of the development of brilliant with pride, and also in experienced defeat and failure. The national members of these common experience makes the national community have the honor of the larger centripetal force, at the same time, along with the honor or disgrace and identify strongly feelings. In a sense, the existence of the enemy opponent and external, often also is maintaining the national community cohesion one of elements. When people face the difference between life and death, the national community all the internal contradictions will be reduced to a secondary position, this has been for the domestic and foreign many facts have proved. Meanwhile, a nation in the country or the world affairs, the greater the role of, the prestige, the bigger the national cohesion is bigger also. The prestige of the nation is to improve the national image and national self-esteem and the prerequisite of conditions, it directly and national members of the centripetal force linked.

In addition, national development in the history of China, along with the national psychology to temper, between the national members also interact with each other. Such as; Information communication can strengthen the national members of affinity between emotions and thoughts of mutual understanding, and the consistency of the national members. Especially the communication of the up and down, can make the trust from members, sense of self-esteem, thus removing misunderstanding and suspicion, enhance the affinity. Many people in our country in the mood of the rally feelings, such as the Uighur, Tibetan, Mongolian, owenk ethnic groups often hold greatly small all kinds of spontaneous national song and dance rallies, which not only for the national members of the communication between information provided the opportunity, and enhance the whole nation’s cohesive force.

4. Common belief of national cohesion of curing effect

For a nation in community, common belief in the certain degree in a cured the role of national cohesion. Have a common belief, to a common purpose and a collaboration between the incentive. The common belief in the form of external within and of national cohesion of the formation and development plays curing effect.

In the belief system, religious faith is a le pen numerous belief system and social consciousness. In real life, religious awareness to a transcendence, beyond the "gods" belief form, reflects different beliefs of the national natural, social and for their own and their understanding of the relationship.

Through the ages of the many philosophers, anthropologists, religious historians, even theologians, and are very attention and tried to explore the complex social phenomenon, and since the ancient times widespread group or individual religious beliefs psychological phenomenon. For psychologists for, their concern and about the specific social conditions, all kinds of different religious beliefs of each religious people, participate in religious activities and in religious life, felt religious experience and religious feelings. Every religious belief, in addition to accept some religious teachings and outside, often or more or less, together with a religious experience, and religious feelings and religious will religious beliefs psychological state. This kind of psychological state to accept or strengthening religious belief has a great effect. For some believers speaking, religious feelings of infection, may be over sermons or chanting we instill religious creed effect. And those who only your mind believe religious dogma, but lack emotional religious fervor person, can not be religious believers. Instead, some people, they don’t necessarily believe that the personal god, just out of the traditional culture atmosphere or strong religious emotions of infection, they will also becomes natural willing to attend to some religious activities. Often hear people say, see the solemn and quiet church, hear a vigorous sacred music. I couldn’t help but will step into the resplendent and magnificent holy shrine. Have been to church people even if not puritans often felt in the church to hear chanting or listen to the choir singing the mind has a purified feeling. Some in adversity, total despair and the helpless, produce a kind of religious need to pray. [20]

China’s hui islamic, its religious teachings and form will hui tightly held together. China’s yunnan is a multi-ethnic areas, hui form "big, small scattered in" the distribution pattern, compared with the national and has its particularity, namely except in the hinterland and community and the han nationality, bai, to get along with outside, still in the border and the Chinese mainland and other minorities mountains and mixed in. But for more than 700 years, yunnan hui always keeps our national cultural characteristics, even if in the han and other ethnic culture also has not been battalion of assimilation is, this is the role of Islam, whether in the mainland in frontier regions or SanJuOu are so; They are accustomed to in the hui people internal tenacious religious and national awareness of education, the mosque in the education and common as the center of the great things about people place, the hui internal natural form including steward, such as the XiangLao imam, in near theocracy folk management system, to management and guide the all affairs within the nation, in order to resist the penetration of the outside pressure. So long as there is the hui nationality population living place, no matter how much the number, total want to leave no stone unturned build mosques; Even if is unable to built, also want to HuiZuOu donations from financing, and all around the hui nationality will try to help opens, and which as his responsibility and obligation, this is national cohesion. Islam in religious belief, of the hui nationality ideology and social system, the way of life, and the customs and habits, interpersonal relationships and psychological quality in the kernel, has the decisive influence, mosque become the key national development and nature of the significant signs. [21]

In a survey of turpan YiDingHu township, the researchers found that since reform and opening-up, the religious beliefs of the Uighur and get active, religious influence over people increase greatly than before.

Most adults were to mosque in church, many people still strictly abide by the provisions of fast, church in fact has become the symbol of the villagers cohesion. [22]

Visible, religious custom is religious culture function in people life custom of extensions, it embodies the religious holy and solemn, and its once evolution for the ethnic life custom, become the important features of the national life. Hui and islamic inseparable connection, already is not about facts, history has proved Islam is an important link of the hui nationality to maintain. From it we can also see the religious beliefs of national cohesion of curing effect is obvious.

社会心理学essay范文Can say, in some degree, a common belief that each nation because of the common faith, and efforts to achieve gathered and common goals. At the same time, as the religious belief system that the religious beliefs because the great absorption ability and together. This shows common beliefs, especially the religious beliefs of national cohesion of curing effect.


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