BUSM 3878 Practice-Based Logistics Research Project1BUSM 3878以实践为基础的现代物流研究专案1
Container Port competition and co-operation:A case study of Hong Kong and Shenzhen ports集装箱港口的竞争与合作： 香港和深圳港口的个案研究1.0Introduction介绍
1.1 The environment of port development港口发展环境
Globalization and international trade have stimulated the development of world logistics. Logistic chains have become one of the critical factors for successful operation in the global trades. Increasing manufacturers rely on logistics integration to gain competitive advantage on cost and services in recent decades. As a result, ports are no longer considered as starting-or- endpoints in export/import trade, but have become important links in door-to-door transport operations within logistics chains (Arjen van Klink, 1994). At present, ports are the main nodes in the transport chain for the international trade and can be regarded as logistics platforms. The development in port areas is the outcome from synergies of globalization of trade; the development of logistics management and the growth in sea transport (Cuadrado, Frasquet and Cervera,2004).全球化和国际贸易促进世界物流的发展。物流链已成为在全球行业的成功运作的关键因素之一。在近几十年来，越来越多的制造商依赖于物流一体化成本和服务获得竞争优势。因此，港口不再被视为起点或终点的出口/进口贸易，但已成为内送货到门运输业务物流链的重要环节（罗•克林克，1994年）。目前，港口是主要的国际贸易运输链中的节点，可以视为物流平台。从物流管理的发展和海上运输的增长，港口地区的发展是贸易全球化的协同作用的结果（夸德拉多，Frasquet和塞韦拉，2004）。
1.2 Port development in China中国港口发展
With the globalization in manufacturing and marketing, the global economy is shifting towards the new industrializing countries in Asia. This has resulted in greater seaborne trade between Asia and other nations. As the industrial and manufacturing activities developed, China has been keeping the double growth rate in GDP in 1990s and has become the “world’s manufacturer”. China is importing raw materials and energy mainly and exporting increasing quantities of manufactured goods currently. Consequently, ports in China are enjoying a period of accelerated development. For example, Shanghai and Shenzhen, as two leading ports in China, have had the remarkable growth rate in range between 20 and 30 per cent, and their throughput volume has been up to 18 mil TEU and 15.9 mil TEU respectively in 2005. (Heideloff, 2006)制造和营销的全球化，全球经济正在转向新的工业化国家在亚洲。这就造成了更大的亚洲和其他国家之间的海运贸易。由于工业及制造业活动的发展，中国一直保持双增长速度在20世纪90年代在国内生产总值，并已成为“世界的制造商”。中国进口原材料和能源为主，目前出口制成品的数量越来越多的。因此，中国港口正享受着一个加速发展的时期。例如，上海和深圳，在中国的两个主要港口，有显着的增长速率介于20和30％，其吞吐量已经达到18万TEU和15.9万TEU，分别在2005年。 （Heideloff，2006年）The latest statistics (Table 1) show that that within top 10 throughput of container port, Hong Kong, shanghai and Shenzhen ranked second , third and forth position in 2005. In contrast, although Hong Kong has an advantage in container throughput, the growth rate (2% in 2005) is not as significant as Shanghai (24.33%)and Shenzhen port(18.96%).
1.3 Background of Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port香港港口和深圳港口的背景http://www.ukassignment.org/dxazessay/
It is noticed that within the top ten ports in Table 1, Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port are sharing the proximity of hinterland in Pear River Delta (PRD) area (as showed in Figure 1 for geographical location).The PRD area can be granted as one of the world’s largest export manufacturing base. Its central is Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SZSEC). SZSEC was set up in 1980 and it is adjacent to one of busiest container port in the world: Hong Kong port. Hong Kong, as the gateway to the mainland China, owing to its dramatic economic growth, has been highly developed in order to meet the regional international trade needs. Since the Chinese open-door policy in economy conducted in 1978, Hong Kong port has become the regional hub in the two decades afterwards.香港港口和深圳港的背景值得注意的是于表1，香港港口和深圳港的十大港口腹地珠江三角洲（珠三角）地区（如地理位置图1中显示）共享的接近，珠三角地区可以授予作为世界上最大的出口生产基地之一。它的中心是深圳经济特区（SZSEC）。 SZSEC成立于1980年，它是毗邻在世界上最繁忙的集装箱港口：香港港口。香港作为通往中国大陆，由于其巨大的经济增长，已经高度发达，以满足区域的国际贸易需求。由于中国在1978年进行的经济开放政策，，香港港口已成为二十年后的区域枢纽。Figure 1: The map for Hong Kong port, Shenzhen port and their hinterland- Pearl River DeltaSource: Song (2002)
However, China’s government began to concentrate on the ports construction in the last decade. In order to meet the requirement of hinterland international trades, large amount of investment has been poured into ports and its infrastructure. The fact that Shenzhen port is threatening the leadership position of Hong Kong as the regional hub in south China can be regarded as the example of this phenomenon. In 1998, Shenzhen only ranked 40th of the port throughput in world and up to 8th in 2001(Containerization International,2002).Shenzhen port is experiencing the speeding increment on its throughput currently.1.4 Relationship between Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port香港港口与深圳港口之间的关系The initial competition elements between Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port contribute to the proximity of hinterland that they are serving in. Both ports are located in adjacent to Pearl River Delta area. This determines that shippers, shipping lines have options to choose a more suitable port. Hence, it is inevitable that severe competition exists between these two ports. In the increasingly competitive environment, ports need to make use of their different resources and capabilities to gain competitive advantage (Porter, 1980). Due to Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port are in two economies (capitalist and communist), it differs these two ports significantly in both the pace and level of development and the institutional management. (Wang, 1998). Thus, it is worthy of conducting the research on these ports competition and examining their respective competitive advantage based on their different resources and capabilities.香港港口和深圳港口之间最初的竞争元素有助于它们服务于最初的内地临近。两个港口都位于毗邻珠江三角洲地区。这决定了托运人,航运公司已经选择一个更合适的端口。因此,这是不可避免的,严重这两个港口之间存在竞争。在竞争日益激烈的环境下,港口需要利用不同的资源和能力来获得竞争优势(波特,1980)。由于香港港和深圳港口是在两个经济体(资本主义和共产主义),它与这两个港口显著的速度和发展水平和制度管理。(王,1998)。因此,它是值得进行研究在这些港口竞争和检查各自的竞争优势基于他们不同的资源和能力。
However, as the various development opportunities brought by booming economic in China and increasing demand in international trades, Can the relationship between Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port be co-operative besides competitive? It is noticed that regional circumstances vary fast and have huge impact on port and transportation industry. This leads to ship operators are not only require port to be a merely ‘good handlers” but also a efficient and comprehensive container logistics centers.(Ha,2003). Hence, in order to meet the new requirement from customers, it is important for these two ports to form a strategic alliance for their sustainable development. The key point is how they can cooperate with each other by making use of their competitive advantages. The purpose is to form a complementary relationship so that to gain a win-win situation for both parties. The research paper will focused on both competition and cooperation perspectives to conduct a theoretical and practical research.
The framework is shown as figure 1, firstly, the paper will conduct a comprehensive comparison based on these two ports tangible resources and intangible capabilities. As a consequence, the respective distinctive competences will be derived. It can be regarded as the foundation of the strategic relationship between these two ports in both competition and co-operation. Through such strategic alliance, sustainable development can be achieved.这个框架是如图1所示,首先,本文将进行一个全面的比较基于这两个港口有形资源和无形的能力。因此,各自独特的能力将被导出。它可以被视为战略关系的基础这两个港口之间既有竞争又有合作。通过这样的战略联盟,可以实现可持续发展。#p#分页标题#e#
Figure 2: The framework of competition and Co-operation relationship between ports.Source: (Hill, Jones & Galvin , 2004)