The briefly introduction of Chinese Exclusion in Australia and the reasons behind it Abstract: In the history of the chinese abroad,the chinese are treated unfairly,especially the chinese exclusion in Australia for almost dacades of years.,which pushed the movement to the climax.We may wonder what caused the exclusion in Australia.Key words:Chinese Exclusion in Australia Chinese Overseas Reasons"According to the exclusion of Australia movement and reason"
Chinese in Australia is always very special, very ZaYan, even very stubborn a group of. This role playing bad or success or maybe db and is not very high, but must be MingHuangHuang, be clear at a glance. The earliest Chinese came to Australia in the 1840 s, by 1858, already about 40000 Chinese on the Australia. The main reason to macau is because this is the gold mine, it can be the mining area, in farm sell cheap Labour sour for a living. At the time, the Chinese have a few big features: the industry is willing to do, unity, docile law-abiding, silence, and almost exclusively male, gambling, suck opium. Although also protected by law, but because they are so capable. Often in a white dry the rest of the gold can also into gold, so Chinese labor has been under intense discrimination. 1
As early as in the Ming and qing dynasties ago have Chinese immigrant to overseas, at the time the overseas Chinese is mainly smuggling remove, and then Chinese is mainly is to recruit foreign act as overseas labor, the position is compared commonly underground. And usually this labor migration for the majority of men, at the time the overseas labor mainly sell his labor, and many are not voluntarily go abroad. Their service for employers, after the expiration of the contract, many Chinese workers have opted to stay with overseas, but still engaged in LiQiHuo no technical content, sell his labor. Many Chinese elderly was very gloomy, where many don’t have enough. The middle of the s, Australia found the gold gold mine, attracts the prospectors of other countries, including China’s gold immigrants. China, however, the discovery of gold in the gold rush, immigration way and not being clear, they are white racist in Australia the rejection and not friendly to treat. Good behavior in China deaf, and gradually formed a notorious behind the "white Australia policy". In the 1970 s, along with the change of the international situation, China’s political and economic status has improved, which wise abolished this policy. Since then China to Macao immigration increases gradually, in Australia the Chinese economic and political status increases. 2
So, let us in this article to learn about Australia from the three times the exclusion of movement, and the three Chinese exclusion movement behind the deep reason.
A, Australia Chinese exclusion movement
About 1829 years. Australia’s MuYangYe some development, and Australia labor shortages, someone suggested new south wales in hiring Chinese, Indian, and native American island in the Pacific Ocean. But until 1847 the first batch of south China university of technology in Sydney on to shore, and employment in the pasture, 1850 years ago the farmer and rancher Australia to hire overseas workers quite have the interest, white and between Chinese temporarily live together peacefully. 1851 years of the start "the gold rush" attracted China’s guangdong area tens of thousands of Chinese people, just start of overseas Chinese feel that the British are very friendly, they put the gold mine in Australia Melbourne as "new jinshan" paired off in Chinese into Australia, only to 1859 Chinese in Australia as many as 42000 people. 4 these Chinese immigrants have a common ideal, and that is to become rich after comes back home with wealth and power, and honor the back to hometown. In order to achieve the ideal, their hard work, KeQinKeJian, accumulate wealth.
As the Chinese continue to pour and "the gold rush" increase in temperature, white and Chinese friction also becoming obvious. The escalating friction finally appeared in the colony under the white partial Chinese labor event driven. The first Chinese exclusion movement began in 1854, when the white miners Victoria gold at the conference, decided to get Chinese miners out of the mine, the riot has a great influence, fortunately authorities timely intervention before it caused great tragedy. But after the event, the establishment of the "gold royal commission" in June 1855 by the Chinese exclusion act, to Australia to ship’s Chinese limits on the number, and also provides the Chinese immigration prohibitively expensive. All the law the ships of registration, each load 10 tons goods in a prospective Chinese, and each entry Chinese pay entry prohibitively expensive 10 pounds. 5 it is recorded in history of Australia first Chinese exclusion act. The bill come on stage makes white miners more unbridled, not only for the Chinese white miners a bidding war, also robbed of property, the Chinese miners lost money. Not only that, they also detained tax collection to the Chinese, every 12 years Chinese 1 pound per month. In this kind of unfair behavior, Chinese signed joint signature "pray for civilians to parliament, from this tax idea." Parliament this will the collection standard to 4 pounds per person per year. 6
Victoria authorities feel alone Chinese exclusion had little effect, so called for new south wales and south Australia common action Chinese joint rejection. In 1857, south Australia passed to Victoria Chinese exclusion act as the chief of the Chinese immigration bill restrictions. At the same time, the bill is for new south wales has not been passed by congress and abortion, many Chinese have flocked to NSW, can be in new south wales, Chinese was attacks were still unknown. Even in broad daylight, Chinese was rob events to ongoing also. New south wales and the authorities not only have no so and punish white, but immediately through the Chinese exclusion act to quell Chinese anger. The three joint Chinese exclusion from Australia to many Chinese were forced to, Chinese in Macao Numbers to drop quickly. Plus, because "the gold rush" rags, white miners transferred in succession. 7 in the whites and the Chinese gold decrease contradiction. Then, around the Chinese exclusion act in the 1860 s has been abolished. The first wave of exclusion of movement in the past.
In 1875, the gold mine in Queensland pearl ink river found Chinese again the stream, and made great gains. "It is estimated that then took gold have taken white one million three hundred thousand ounces, Chinese also have one million three hundred thousand ounces." Chinese people’s huge gains drew white miners jealousy, nature, the second Chinese exclusion movement was arises at the historic moment. The leader of the movement is Queensland. In 1875, Queensland colonial authorities to Hong Kong colonial authorities detained for all the ships of the Queensland, the purpose is to cut off the source of the Chinese Queensland. The following year, Queensland legislation through parliament, and puts forward the higher than whites on Chinese mining gold license taxes, in addition, colonial authorities still to return the taxes as the condition, encourage Chinese to return home. In 1877 through the formal Queensland the limitation of Chinese immigration act, in November 1878, Macao and steamboat company recruit Chinese caused OuJi crew strike, the strike all the white got widely support. White to colonial authorities, colonial authorities to Australia and put pressure on the steamer lines, steamboat the company had to yield, and gradually fired Chinese. 8
The qing government is Chinese was fired and so on a series of events to the British have presented a protest. Britain to bother about, Queensland but with "Australia’s interest" for the premise called on other colonies provide support. In 1880 the colonies gathered on behalf of Melbourne, and held the first Oceania colonial area interregional conference. In this meeting, through the Chinese exclusion act, it is within the scope of Australia in the closed system formed the Chinese exclusion. This is the second Chinese exclusion movement. Be worth what carry is, the Chinese exclusion act really played a rejection of the Chinese role, in the 1877 to 1888 11 years, a total of only 550 Chinese in Queensland. 9
The third Chinese exclusion movement is based on April 1884 at Victoria happen "Afghanistan date" for violations of the beginning of the. The ship loaded with Chinese. So in June. The second Oceania held colonial area interregional conference adopted a resolution resolution regulation: every 500 tons of any boat only allowed in a Chinese into the Macao; And prohibited Chinese in colonial moved to; And so on. The meeting suggested that the Chinese exclusion has become all the colonial joint action to Australia. Starting in 1897, the colonial area of the NaDaEr act also referred to as "the education test act. This act regulations: any application into the bay, who must take part in European language testing, not through the shall not into the bay, in the implementation of the law, white europeans are allowed in Macao, and at the same time a large Japanese and India also allowed in macau, the only one is excluded and big restricted. 10
In the second half of the nineteenth century, in Australia, first individual colonial area alone Chinese exclusion, step into the development of several colonial area joint Chinese exclusion further evolution for all colonial area unified Chinese exclusion, eventually leading to the Chinese exclusion become Australia one of the basic state policy: all this makes Chinese situation was bad in Australia in 1901, the Chinese already from 1888 in 50000 to 32000 people. 11#p#分页标题#e#
Second, Australia Chinese exclusion reason to spy out
Australia Chinese exclusion movement lasts for decades, then lead to the cause of the exclusion of Australia are those? The direct reason should be white workers and south China university of technology to the economic interests of the conflict. At the time of the Australian although many white workers, Chinese workers accounts for only 1% of the population of Australia, but strong concentration of wealth ability, diligent spirit, strong adaptability, let white very jealous. White feel Chinese in social production competition, a threat to its.
Chinese in Australia in order to survive and concentration of wealth, pinching pennies, have a very poor life. South Australia’s prime minister, in talking about Chinese living said: "the way they live, so that they can make people starving in Europe where family life coexist money". Usually, the Chinese don’t like and white direct competition. But, the Chinese are in the hand of the wealth is considerable, they have strong competitiveness in "the gold rush", most of the Chinese are "truly in others to adopt gold mine in mining slag", however, in 1856 alone, there were 116903 ounces and 500000 worth of gold "flow to guangzhou". 13 to the desire to make gold miners since people drool with envy, feeling jealous, which caused the white miners safety in Numbers on oppression and plunder Chinese, caused the first Chinese exclusion movement.
Australia to make a living without the experience of the Chinese although the baptism of industrialization, but traditional Chinese don’t hidebound disposition and strong ability to adapt to survive and make them abroad has achieved very good results can do. "The gold rush" wave after the past, a lot of white people are unemployed and frustration, Chinese miners are quick out, plenty of liquid in the city and surrounding areas. Especially in Sydney and Melbourne. In 1880, Sydney had 1014 Chinese; In 1888, the number rose to 4202. 14
Into the city and suburb of Chinese is mainly engaged in manufacturing, the furniture business, planting vegetables, and so on. By 1901, the furniture manufacturing and do business in Victoria Chinese accounting for 10% of the total number of Chinese Victoria, in wales this percentage is 7%. In this industry, Chinese and white competition especially fierce, therefore, the white to Chinese row times worse. They even organized the "furniture manufacturing anti-china coalition", at the same time, the government has been pressure, they claim that cheap Chinese labor has presented a forced them to leave the industry trend. The Chinese took them and their family’s bread; They are in the Chinese don’t equal competition in the disadvantage. 15
But according to the royal commission colonies survey, in furniture manufacturing industry in this industry, general piecework pay salary, so pay in general are equal. So don’t speak of unfair competition. But because the Chinese general skilled craftsmen, with high efficiency. So in the production of white really bad, Chinese wages higher than white. And a pair of white competition adverse factors is employers like hiring Chinese: "they have little trouble trouble, you can rest assured they work." And there are a majority of Chinese is good at business. Not only Chinese situ and overcame many difficulties to remote towns to sell their products. Further, they’ve expanded sales from Melbourne and Sydney in thousands of outside of Tasmania, Australia and south west Australia. And China
It is well known that in the 19 th century to the beginning of 20 centuries of 30 years, the Australian economy has been in recession state. In some industries, capitalist in order to reduce costs, to get more benefit, so as far as possible hire cheap labor, the employment thoughts directly affect the economic interests of white workers, this action, indirect deepened to Chinese white resentment. All this suggests that the white ACTS as the main force of the exclusion of labor. They not only directly with Chinese opposition but also promote the government limits to Chinese. In fact we are still confused, Chinese and immigrants from other parts of the world, to the Australian development have made a contribution. But why does not exclude the Australia other British, French, German, and just reject the Chinese? In fact the deeper reason or Australia white head entrenched white racist.
Australia white think they own is the world’s most outstanding people, other nationalities are inferior people. They decided that the spirit, intellectual and body than the colored to superior and noble, they according to Darwin’s "natural selection" as the basis. Assert that will conquer the world, white global colonization activities of success, proof of natural selection is white "fittest". 18 large adheres to the this kind of idea, they ignore the native American pain, and they plundered and ruthless slaughter aboriginal australians. They put the colored race as should be washed out, they even directly assert that said, colored is simply can’t be enlightened "inferior nation". They want to strike all colored, in Australia to establish a pure white race society. This is what they call a "anglos Saxon genius-the characteristics and custom" society. And an Australian colonial period of the most influential politicians, Henry parker have made clear "white Australia" claim. He said: "Australia to not allow its population of the population of any nature and join the members of the inferior quality…. we must not make or allow people of other RACES into our society. We are not ready to put our right to vote, civil, and including marriage right, the right to social of them any person". 20 so obvious is. The Australian government to limit, prohibited Chinese into the bay, the Macao policy, the purpose of which is to use the power of the regime to keep white ancestry characteristic and the Australian customs. And this is Australia Chinese exclusion of the most fundamental reasons.
In order to make the Chinese exclusion appear as Australia, a lot of the Chinese exclusion coined an excuse. First of all, they promote Chinese into can cause Australia social segregation consequences, destroy Australia "democratic society" basis. They say Chinese still keep yourself in Australia the traditional way of life, and still keep their traditional religious beliefs. White racist declared: "results, not only will they attempt to set up is divided institutions, swallowed the legislative and administrative power colonies, and will they accept shoddy society is professional and political status, that can cause a racial separation in on the basis of the political, economic, all of the separation results of both social. It will lead to establish in all members based on equality, freedom real democratic social destruction." 21
But in fact the excuse is fragile. Because at the time to see the total population. Chinese is less than 1% of the total population, from the employment situation and department to see, almost without Chinese national economy in the important sector; From the political groups see, except a few industry of mutual outside groups, the Chinese did not exist in the larger forces groups. As these examples show that Chinese people in Australia at the threat of Australia won’t test, investigate its basic reason is the other white Australia always colored as inferior race, all the time in addition to the white race of social exclusion in other than members outside. These are all colonial authorities to keep the "white Australia policy".
Second, and they made the white racist incite said. They put forward the move because of sino women rarely, so many Chinese will inevitably and white hybrid, so will break the pure white people Australia lineage. Among the women less sino move is a fact. According to the 1861 census statistics, women accounted for only about four over one thousand of the total number of Chinese immigrants, even after 40 years, account for just 2% of the total number of Chinese. 22 but, Chinese immigrants in Australia there is no home of the business plan, because they just want to make money in Australia and then go back to support the old man and his wife, and children. Plus, the environment of the sinister, working hard, went to Australia Chinese men from hand to mouth can be at most, don’t even say home in Australia and and white women married. Speaking of mixed race, is entirely true.
Making people more no excuse is so-called: Chinese immigrants into Australia is to "peace invasion" account. Some Australian experts point out that, "although Australia a sparsely inhabited, but it is a potential, and thus, the rich land near the geographical position in China to Australia as their country to solve poverty and too crowded population and the relief valve to use." And they even warning Australia "we must remember,…… the process of Asian invasion, even if only has a very mild and the very insignificant characteristics, if years of continue, so may be in 50 or 60 years, will be in a dangerous results among us, that is Australia civilization and social structure destruction. And they in this problem to ignore the immigrants of importance in the development of a country. And the fact that the Chinese immigrants really more of a huge contribution to the development of Australia. For example, living in Sydney, Melbourne in new south wales and Victoria many towns of Australia are main edible Chinese cultivated vegetables. And also, the turn of the century, Sydney, Melbourne in big cities such as bananas, 80% above is Chinese supply and sales by.
Plus it is strictly prohibited to Chinese people make a living at that time the qing government went out to sea. And the opium war, the qing be itself, there are other countries the meaning of aggression. Australian politicians to publicity is completely white supremacists psychology in the way.#p#分页标题#e#
Finally, what is worth mentioning, especially in abroad Chinese Australia long time is excluded, the qing government corruption and incompetence has a direct relationship. The struggle of the Chinese people and adverse and struggle lax also add to the white of the Chinese exclusion arrogance. Early in the mid s, Australia is a wave of exclusion. The qing government at that time really sent staff to Macao of sympathy, but is totally out of the qing government protection face, no to bring substantial interest in Macao Chinese. Australia historians pointed out in China directly diplomatic weak: "China under the reign of the emperor of the population so much, he shuts a little attention to drift in exotic overseas territory up subjects? Even if attention, also do not have diplomatic status to increase the weight of his attention. And instead, Japan is different", this was because there was no strong country for support, overseas Chinese fled but Jackson’s fate. Just as, some overseas Chinese said: "a strong China is to solve the decisive factors of Australia Chinese." 28
The overseas Chinese are, they always hold more than the less about the idea, they are some of the rural poor, no get rid of farmers class limitations. Always because, passive resistance, this reaction, of course, is in the struggle of the underdog.
Australia Chinese exclusion at that time is the great influence, even today, the history is worth our dialectical view and thinking to. In Chinese society is now many factors of the decision. Can we always want to understand, in the international society, one country strength is very important.
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