2022美国论文现代科学技术革命对管理理论与管理方法的影响The impact of modern science and techno
Summary and research articles management theories and methods are more foreign countries such as Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management, the evolution of Daniel A · Rennes management thinking: the history of the development of domestic management MK of thinking, such as the History of Western Thought Management salty Guo Gang, Yang Scribes Principles of Management, and many others. This article refers to more or less part of their conclusions, they studied management theory and management time management and more time to consider the social and human development, and the development of science and technology from a few to study management theory and management methods This article on scientific and technological revolution are discussed in this direction on management theory and management methods.管理理论与方法的总结与研究性文章比较多，国外如泰罗的科学管理原理，丹尼尔A·雷恩的管理思想的演变：国内如孙耀君的管理思想发展史，郭咸纲的西方管理思想史，杨文士的管理学原理等，不胜枚举。本文或多或少引用了他们的部分结论，他们在研究管理理论与管理方法的时候更多考虑了管理与当时社会和人文的发展，而很少从科学技术的发展来研究管理理论与管理方法，本文就科学技术革命这个方向对管理理论和管理方法进行讨论。
First, the history of modern science and technology revolution一、现代科技革命历史沿革 http://www.ukassignment.org/dxazessay/Several scientific and technological revolution occurred in human development over. But in ancient times, science is still in its infancy, relatively primitive and fragmented, did not form a complete theoretical system. In modern times. Science and technology really began systematic and comprehensive development. Mid-16th century, Copernicus published masterpiece "celestial bodies", said the proposed center of the sun, from the beginning of the scientific and technological revolution.
The first technological revolution originated in the 18th century, Galileo, Newton's classical mechanics system to establish the background of textile machinery innovation as a starting point. The invention of the steam engine and the widespread use of signs, industrial production to achieve the transition from hand tools to mechanization. Widespread use of the steam engine changed the face of the entire industry, and promote the comprehensive development of modern science has made significant achievements in physics, astronomy and other fields, giving rise to a second technological revolution of the mid-19th century. The technological revolution in electromagnetic theory, chemical and biological evolution of atomic theory proposed as the main content, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, chemistry, biology and other disciplines as the backbone of discipline, and promote the modern chemistry, biology, geology, mathematics, physics birth or develop science, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, optics and other disciplines, creating a scientific century. Subsequently worldwide electricity technology as the first trend, the rapid development and application, greatly promoted the overall development of chemical technology, steel technology, engine technology and other technologies, creating a huge productivity to the entire community a broad and far-reaching impact. The technological revolution has led to a more human activities rely on science to guide, so in order to induce the birth of relativity and quantum mechanics as the main indicator of modern science to produce. Modern science is physics as a precursor to modern cosmology, molecular biology, systems science, soft science to produce as the main content. In the natural sciences, social sciences and scientific thinking formed interdisciplinary interpenetration again characterized by new technological revolution.
Modern technology revolution began after World War II, is now developing at a rapid pace forward. It was marked by widespread application of atomic energy, space technology, computer, information technology, biotechnology and genetic control technology, its main contents include information highway, new material technology, biotechnology, new energy technology, outer space technology and revolution in the field of marine technology, a strong wave of modern scientific and technological revolution is impacting all aspects of today's society, resulting in a broad and far-reaching impact on the whole of nature and human society. Especially the development of mathematical sciences, physics and other basic subjects not only a stimulating effect on the development of modern management theories and methods have had an immeasurable impact, there has been management process school, school experience, human behavior, school, school of social systems , decision theory school, math school, etc., but also deep-rooted, Zhengfangdouyan, forming a "management theory jungle."Second, the extension of the extension of the development and management of content management theory and management methods二、管理理论与管理方法的发展及管理内容的拓延
Management ideas of the ancients mostly scattered in ancient history books and various writings, there is no corresponding monograph or publication. Such as "The Bible" centurions Hebrew Old Testament leader Moses' father-in "Exodus" in the records of Moses, hands-on approach proposed centurion recommendations. Studied the ancient Hebrews' concept level exception to the principle of organizational principles. ": Ancient Babylon became the first country to use legal means management model: American ancient books," Art of War "discussion of the principles of war who still attracts a large number of readers, including About war moderation and caution, speed, flexibility and adaptability, and so the use of strategic thinking is a modern enterprise strategic management thinking Xixixiangtong.
However, only in the last few hundred years, especially since the 18th century, was only systematic study of management, has become a common body of knowledge has become a formal discipline. 1776 Adam Smith published "The Wealth of Nations" It was a classic economics, but he also proposed the division of labor management philosophy. French economist Say first explicitly managed as a separate factor of production, with land, labor, capital, side by side.
By the early 20th century, showing a trend of diversification of management theory, a group of researchers emphasize human resource management or administration of the "human dimension", while another group is focused on developing the number of application methods. Different methods are related to the same study, the differences between them reflect the researcher different backgrounds and interests. Taylor's scientific management theory proposes that people who are economic, efficiency-oriented and implementation of standardized management, time management theory to fill the gaps. His followers Gantt invented the Gantt chart to improve management, increase efficiency, and more concerned about the interests of workers. Contribution to the theory of scientific management in its opened up a management shift from experience to science, laid the foundation for the development of other management theory and methods. Fayueerti out of the general theory of the five administrative functions and 14 management principles of coordination and control, otherwise known as organization and management theory that the operation and management are two different concepts, presented management with planning, organizing, directing, and build a hierarchical pyramid structure, until now, a number of businesses and organizations still use this type of organizational structure. Weber developed a theory of authority structure, and based on the authority to describe the relationship between organizational activities. This is a reflection of the principle of division of labor, with a well-defined level and detailed rules and institutions, and non-organizational model of personal relationships, this organization theory has been called the "bureaucracy." This organization is designed for the needs of large organizations since industrialization.After the 1930s, management scientists discovered that improve people's enthusiasm, initiative and creativity to develop people to improve the efficiency of the organization is more important. Size organizational activities is determined by the outcome of the emotional leadership and staff, which management will shift the focus of research in the management of the people themselves, which is based on interpersonal behavioral science theory as the main content. Their representative Mayo is an American behavioral scientist, he advocated a behavior management approach, that influence human behavior through the analysis of a variety of psychological factors, the use of certain measures to improve relationships, in order to improve the mood and morale of staff , which can produce maximum results, to improve organizational efficiency. Since then, a large number of scholars began to study with human subjects management issues. Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs theory, he argues that human needs are hierarchical, different people have different needs. Management is to meet the basic needs of individuals up conducted. Herzberg's two-factor theory proposed, he believes health factors and motivational factors from different aspects to stimulate workers to work, played a different role. Implications for managers is to pay attention to employee job content factors of importance, especially to make the job enrichment, many ways to meet the needs of employees. Strengthen the theory that the United States representative behavioral scientist, psychologist Skinner, in his view, where the operation to go through the learning behavior occurs, may by controlling the "reinforcement" to be controlled and reconstruction, strengthening a positive way and negative reinforcement. American psychologist Vroom expectancy theory is put forward in 1964. That human behavior is goal pursuit. Excitation force behavior depends on the level of the target value and the expected probability of size. Managers must be able to raise the possibility of objective values and goals, in order to effectively stimulate the enthusiasm of human behavior. "Pay equity theory" is an American psychologist Adams made in 1956. He believes that the only equitable remuneration, to make employees feel satisfied and excited to play the role. The compensation is fair, the staff not just look at the absolute value, but social comparison, comparison with others, or historical comparison, and compare their past. Compensation is too high or too low will cause the workers psychologically nervous.
20th century, there have been about 70 years of management theory burgeons situation. If Simon is represented in decision theory school, to enjoy Leeming Hertzberg economic role as the representative of the school to Drucker and other representatives of human experience called the school or school case to Lu Sangsi represented contingency theory school, Barnard represented in school and other social systems. By the late 20th century, there have been more specific management theories, such as the Deming total quality management, strategic management Boer, Bideshengji learning organizations. There are many theories related to management, they all reflect the needs of society in different ways. They always have to clarify management is to serve the community, society as a whole in order to achieve the most efficient allocation of resources in service is to improve the efficiency of the whole society services.
People in the coordination of group activities in order to achieve a certain purpose in the process, according to the management tasks and manage objects, the work out modalities to achieve stated objectives. If you follow this way to achieve the established goals, it shows that it is effective, this mode of action through constant repetition, gradually fixed in the minds of the people's activities down into a proper management. People have been managing exploration activities and social practice, looking right, management desirable. With the development of large-scale industrial production of increasingly fine specialization, more complex production cooperative relations in the production process as well as the increasingly widespread application of science and technology, making the role of management in practice is becoming increasingly prominent and important. People began to manage a scientific management methods as an important part of a systematic study. Taylor's scientific management theory provides us with enhanced management approach, but it is carried out as bait money. Fayol classical organization theory emphasizes rational division of labor and the effective control of the organization, provides us with guidance on corporate macro. Mayo interpersonal management must pay attention to the psychological theory advocates to meet people and emphasis on interpersonal behavior incentives. Therefore, there interpersonal theory to organizational management bring about tremendous changes. Interpersonal theory gradually infiltrated the organization and management practice, management scientists find ease labor relations, improve worker morale, in order to improve production efficiency in management thinking in such methods. Decision theory provides us with the introduction of mathematical sciences, quantitative methods in management research.Third, the impact of modern science and technology revolution in management theory and management methods三、现代科学技术革命对管理理论与管理方法的影响Management theory and management methods, as with all human knowledge, derived from human practice. With the progress of human society is the development and practice of science and technology and continue to develop. Characteristics of modern scientific and technological revolution is formed with the integration of production, new theories and new methods continue to be applied to production activities and management practices.Impact on the management of pre-20th century, the most important from the industrial revolution (Industrial Revolution), which began in 18th century England. The results of the industrial revolution is the machine instead of part of the power of human – machine production and the factory system in general appear. With the development of the industrial revolution and the factory system, the factory and the company's management has become increasingly prominent: These plants need to forecast demand, ensure adequate supply of raw materials: the workers assigned tasks, directing daily production activities; coordination of activities to ensure that normal operation of the machine and ensure product quality and find markets for the products. In particular, in the cottage industry of people rarely care about efficiency, and in large-scale production conditions, under pressure to pay wages on time, and how to enable workers to work at full capacity becomes very important. Planning, organizing, leading and control has become indispensable. Thus, the emergence of classical scientific management theory like Taylor and Fayol and classical organization theory.Industrial Revolution began in England and then spread to Europe and other countries. After the industrial revolution to reach the United States for example, gave birth to the textile industry. In 1808 there have been 15 U.S. textile mills, some companies also manage the way earlier in the UK to improve, hiring a professional management personnel, and the use of the steam engine. But before the Civil War, the vast majority of American businesses are family-owned, family-managed, small scale, technology underdeveloped – which is adapted to its characteristics of the times: a small amount of their capital investment, services in limited markets. With the advent of the railway, ships and communications technologies (such as the telegraph), the market expanded, so have the needs of advanced machinery and mass production in advanced machinery and large-scale production conditions, improving efficiency has become a central issue – – because of the expensive equipment (such as large-scale blast furnace steelmaking) only to maximize production efficiency, to reduce costs and thus lower prices, expand the market. Now due to the theoretical development of mathematics, making the management of quantitative research becomes possible to study the management and efficiency of the methods have emerged, such as operations research and optimization methods introduced in all areas of management to make it more scientific and rational and effective.
The use of modern scientific and technological revolution has changed the business of production, mechanical force, mass production, the rapid expansion of the United States and Europe brought the railway system to reduce transportation costs, etc., also contributed to the development of large companies (large companies first appeared in railway system). If john D.Rockefeller establish a monopoly of the Standard Oil Company (Standard Oil); Andrew Carnegie controlled the steel industry 2/3. These companies need to formalize the management, the need for standardized management theory more urgent. MRP (Material Requirements Planning), on-time production, production management, quality management, human resources management gradually standardized.
Short Delay science and technology requirements management liberation and innovative ideas, some of the old management, experience hindered the production, it is necessary to absorb and learn new management ideas. With the further development and application of computer technology and network technology, enterprise, data exchanges between enterprises and between enterprises and customers continued to increase, from the development of a number of potential corporate law and useful knowledge to make better, more rational development imperative . Flat organizational structure to develop, manage margin increased accordingly. New technologies and theories such as ERP, E-Business (e-commerce), CRM (customer relationship management), KDD (Knowledge Discovery) and DM (data mining) and introduced business management department of management, they are artificial intelligence, machine combined with the learning database product.Studies of modern applied mathematics and biology leaps and bounds, the corresponding gradual systematic knowledge in management theory also infiltrated the appropriate content, such as the use of fuzzy expert systems, genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks and other methods of greatly improving the management efficiency and effectiveness.Management is a science and an art, it is a complex system engineering. It is affected by modern science and technology revolution and the development of social sciences and raised in many disciplines into. With the further development of science and technology, it is bound to get faster and better and more rational development.