2022美国research作文区位视角下的外商投资集聚原因分析Foreign investment region gather
Since opening , the UK market with great potential and increasingly improved investment environment to attract a large number of foreign direct investment , as of the end of 2009 , the United Kingdom has approved the establishment of foreign -invested enterprises reached 683,000 , the actual foreign direct investment amounted to $ 945.4 billion . In 2009, the industrial output value of enterprises with foreign investment , tax , exports accounted for 28 percent of the country, 22.7% and 55.9% , direct employment to absorb 4,500 people. Can be drawn from the above data , foreign investment has become a highlight of the UK 's economic growth , the British foreign trade , industrial upgrading and promoting various aspects of economic reform have played a positive role in promoting the rapid development of the British economy .
At the same time , after 30 years of development , foreign investment has formed a certain cluster effect in the UK, especially in high-tech and capital-intensive and technology-intensive industrial equipment manufacturing , such as the IT industry in Dongguan Taiwan-funded enterprises gather , Kunshan electronics industry in Taiwan-funded enterprises gather , Japanese companies Pinghu optical and electrical industry agglomeration, and so on. Facilitate foreign investment in gathering many factors , some of the main factors through the development of foreign investment in the success of the gathering place of study , the impact of foreign investment have regional effects , agglomeration effects , economies of scale , industrial advantages , external relations industry , space costs, etc. This article will Pinghu optical and electrical industry, for example , to analyze the causes of gathering foreign investment .
Pinghu Foreign Investment gather Overview
As a county-level city , after the last 10 years of development , not only as a county-level city in the province's largest Japanese investment base , but also in the use of foreign development of optical and electrical industries walk in the forefront of the country . Beginning in 1999 , under the Gongyelishi strategy, Pinghu City in the rapid development of optical and electrical industry , to 2004 , the city's total industrial output value electromechanical scale enterprises reached 6.741 billion yuan , an increase of 64% , accounting for the city's industrial output value 24.9%. By 2008, the above-scale enterprises with 142 , accounting for 17.5 % of the city 's industrial enterprises above designated size realized 14.247 billion yuan of industrial output value , an increase of 14.4% over the scale of output accounted for 22.07 percent of the total economy , the size of these optical and electrical enterprise value in just 10 years has increased by 20 times , to become the largest pillar industry in Pinghu , and formed a micro motors, precision machinery and equipment , optoelectronics , smart instrumentation and other industries as the representative of foreign investment concentration phenomenon . In recent years, optical and electrical industries Pinghu full agglomeration effect of foreign investment , expanding industrial base, extend the industrial chain , has clearly showing the status of gathering foreign investment optical and electrical industries , and become the only optical and electrical characteristics of high-tech industry base in Zhejiang Province , approved by the State Ministry of Science and the National Torch Plan Pinghu optical and electrical industry base.
Causes gathering foreign investment analysis
Location theory school of thought , foreign investment tends to flow to those close to the raw materials, market capacity, labor-abundant and industrial agglomeration area. Foreign investment in more intensive production methods in space than any other form, easy to make the investment to form regional cluster . Studies have shown that foreign investment motives were put into production and market motivation, motivation production services , cultural ties and emotional motivation , the use of incentives and reduce the risk of motivation, motivation and export competition motive . Another study showed that the market size , infrastructure conditions and the institutional environment ( including educational conditions , research conditions , local conditions and the degree of openness of financial development ) is the location of FDI determinants , local finance on the location of foreign investment choice has a positive affected. Meanwhile, a large number of empirical studies have shown that agglomeration economies have an important impact on the choice of Foreign Direct Investment . As can be seen , market factors , government policies , transaction costs , the economic environment , infrastructure conditions , local financial and other factors that are important agglomeration of foreign investment , the paper will cost factors, market factors , policy factors , environmental factors, this agglomeration factors analyzed five aspects .
Well-developed transportation network
Generally, the production cost is a major factor affecting foreign investment , firms tend to choose the lowest -cost production location, which usually include the cost of labor costs , transportation costs. Pinghu is located in the Yangtze River Delta economic development of the most active Shanghai , Suzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo City rhombus diagonal cross four points from four cities are only about one hour drive away , is a prime area, geographic location. Northern Zhejiang Pinghu has only Haihe River waterway transport routes Zhajiasu will Zhapu Port, with the Huangpu River and the Grand Canal and other major river routes connecting for cargo transportation offers the convenience of low-cost channel . So unique transportation conditions , saving time and transportation costs , attracted a large number of foreign-funded enterprises , in order to promote the formation of the optical and electrical industry as the core of Japanese investment cluster phenomenon .
Huge market demand
When deciding on a foreign place to invest , tend to be very focused on market factors. Because the size of the market determines the number and size of the enterprise , but also the industrial development of the premise and foundation. Pinghu City is located in the UK 's most economically developed and the highest level of urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta Region . The region of 10 % of the population has created a national GDP and 28.5 percent of total imports and exports 22.1 percent , more than 400 Fortune 500 companies located here . From this set of data can be seen in the regional market capacity is large , and with the rapid development of the last decade the UK , the British demand for high-tech products is growing, which for optical and electrical industry development is a good opportunity. Meanwhile, Pinghu committed to the export-oriented economy will lead to more overseas markets.
Government policy -oriented
The quality and cost of the level of market mechanisms for foreign investment has played a key role in the formation of agglomeration , and policy factors has great guide. Pinghu optical and electrical industry has been able to attract many Japanese investment in a short period of time, and rapid development , which is the local government's policies are closely related . Pinghu government based on " investment, wealthy , security business ," preferential policies, improve infrastructure , provide the best service to foreign investors . Pinghu set up a " one council two centers " that Merchants Service, Administrative Service Center and Complaint Center City economic development environment for foreign investors to provide all aspects of services , but also for foreign customs and immigration inspection and quarantine has zhapu offices can directly accept unmanifested cargo business . Foreign exchange settlement class complete, has joined the global SWFT clearing system. At the same time , the foreign investment projects located in Pinghu , the government according to their size, content and level of investment in the technology industry tohttp://www.ukassignment.org/dxygessay/give the land sale price and standard factory rental price concessions building projects. For Japanese companies to invest in this phenomenon more Pinghu Pinghu government listen to all suggestions , and continuously improve the investment environment , for example , in talent , in order to develop much-needed Japanese Nissho and the corresponding technical personnel , local government and Nissho Heli school ; humanities in creating a suitable environment, in order to allow Japanese companies to better adapt to the environment in Pinghu , specifically the construction of a Japanese-style government street, business associations , such as the establishment of Japanese investment . All these policy factors, gather for attracting foreign investment has played a significant role in promoting .
Favorable investment environmentInvestment environment for foreign investment agglomeration has a great impact on the general investment environment can be divided into hard and soft ambient environment . Hard environment mainly refers to municipal infrastructure , the soft environment mainly refers to R & D and human resources , intermediary service system ( such as finance , accounting, training, legal , etc. ) . Pinghu municipal infrastructure facilities, rich human resources , the existing technical schools, vocational schools and other vocational education secondary schools , to train high-quality front-line staff for the enterprise. Existing at all levels of professional and technical personnel thousand a year also introduced various types of specialized personnel from more than a thousand colleges . Meanwhile, Pinghu is located in the Yangtze River Delta , from Shanghai , Suzhou, Hangzhou , Ningbo and other cities closer , Fudan University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Tongji University , Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Zhejiang University, Suzhou University, Nanjing University and other famous universities can provide Pinghu a considerable number of high-quality talent to the development of high-tech optical and electrical industries inject new vitality .
Concentration factor for development
Agglomeration factors have a significant impact on foreign investment in the UK gathering , including homologous to agglomeration and industrial clustering . Pinghu optical and electrical industry has obvious aggregation effect , most companies are Japanese companies , and the investment in the field to focus on optical and electrical industries. To Nidec Group, for example , since April 1999 it opened its first Nidec Shibaura ( Zhejiang ) Co., Ltd. since , due to the combined effect of , in a few years , 14 foreign companies have set up here in Pinghu , The total investment of about 500 million U.S. dollars of contracted foreign capital of about $ 250 million ; 14 companies in 2009 sales revenue of 5.53 billion yuan . Since Nidec Group "leading " effect, so Pinghu Economic Development Zone, formed a micro-motors , semiconductor manufacturing equipment, sophisticated detection devices, laser scanners , pressure sensors, miniature cameras, digital cameras , optical fiber communication with passive devices , hydrodynamic bearings , optical basic parts based optical and electrical characteristics of industrial advantages , the formation of industrial agglomeration , and has developed into a pillar industry development zone.
Concentration of foreign investment to promote economic development countermeasure
Through the above analysis, cost factors, market factors , policy factors , environmental factors, Agglomeration agglomeration of foreign investment location choice have different degrees of impact , the current backward regions can Pinghu , for example, from the following aspects improvements.
Based on regional industry characteristics , combined with home advantageAccording to the theory of comparative advantage shows that foreign investment tends to value the advantages of location choice Regions natural conditions , resource endowments and capital . Local government area should be based on industry characteristics , combined with a natural advantage to attract foreign domestic investment flows to their economic zone. On this basis , continue to improve infrastructure. Not only is the general infrastructure needed for the production of equipment and facilities , but should be combined with characteristics of the industry, according to the complete and perfect the necessary industrial facilities , thus creating a perfect infrastructure , policies favorable investment environment.
Actively create a good investment environment
Create a positive good investment environment is its main preferential policy. British policy towards foreign investment in recent years in reducing the preferential space to attract investment , the use of foreign capital attracted by the introduction of a comprehensive change in the selectivity. Local governments should keep abreast of national policies to attract foreign investment in the process to fully consider the local natural resources, ecological environment and special industries , selective absorption of the local industry and favorable foreign economic development , so as to achieve a mutual development of compatible mode. Good investment environment is a prerequisite for foreign investment , but also protection.
Enhance industrial supporting capacity
With the strengthening of local government efforts to attract investment , location , infrastructure, preferential policies will bring many advantages gradually weakened , while supporting the ability to bring cost advantages have become an important basis for business investment location of choice . Industrial supporting capacity include industrial system integrity , logistics and distribution system integrity and technical service capabilities. So, where should improve transport and logistics system in the region, in space and time costs of providing a good vantage point for foreign investment , while the technical services and personnel related industries must keep pace with the development of industry , to meet their needs . Enhance the ability to give the industry supporting foreign investment has brought a lot of convenience of the Department, but also to attract foreign investment, a focus on local economic development .
Accelerate regional innovation system
In the use of foreign investment to promote economic development of the whole region , should accelerate the construction of the entire regional innovation system , a change old patterns , the old system , the old policy , innovative use of the system to enhance the competitiveness of local enterprises , local enterprises to make better integrated into the network of foreign investment , and foreign and local companies so that mutual cooperation , mutual benefit and win-win situation to promote regional economic development. Therefore, areas should be open , coordination, integration , the principle of orderly reform of the system constraints , to create a favorable environment for foreign investment and achieve the coordinated development of the region .
Strengthen the combined effect of attracting foreign
For the combined effect of foreign investment has a very important impact , focusing on the way of foreign investment in industrial agglomeration . Local governments to investment and specialization in the market on the basis of consciousness continue to strengthen industrial agglomeration in industrial agglomeration way to Attract FDI to improve the relevance of foreign investment . In order to attract investment and industrial agglomeration way to prevent investment being cut and other areas . Thus , according to the regional industry structure and industrial development direction, a clear direction of investment , determine a good related industries , breaking through the combined effect of expanding industrial advantages , agglomeration of investment , thus boosting economic development throughout the region .