2022英文作文中英教育对比Essay Bilingual education in China
Abstract: This paper will talk about the education in China. The paper begin with the definition of bilingual education. Then paper argue the reasons causing appearance of bilingual education. And how to apply bilingual education is also in this paper content. This paper show the current situation of bilingual education in China, then will point out some problems of bilingual education in China.
Keywords: bilingual education, teaching mode, problems of bilingual education,
The definition of bilingual is that someone could use both languages: his native language and foreign language. He/She can use one foreign language in listening, speaking, reading, writing as well as his/her native language. Of course, his knowledge and abilities of his native language are usually stronger than the second language. The bilingual person is who can proficiently use two language in communication, work and study.
The definition of bilingual education is that use secend language or foreign languages in various subjects when teaching students. In other words, though a number of training and the language environment, let the ability of student using foreign or second language can get close to native language, or even replace of. For example, a tibetan people, can speak Tibetan at home with his family, and also can speak Chinese when his is working with his college. There are two things we must make clear. Firstly, bilingual education is using two languages as the medium of instruction. Through learning subject knowledge to master the foreign language. Secondly, bilingual education focus on interaction between teachers and students, and not just listen to teacher teaching in foreign language in whole class. The purpose is learning both foreign language and knowledge of the subject.
1. What produce bilingual education?
After the five years of the bilingual teaching and research, most researchers argue that the following are the reasons led to bilingual education:
1) The effects of global economic integration to higher education in China.
Global economic integration and information processing by internet effect higher education over the world. There is not different in China. The content and means of education are undergoing profound changing. Strengthening of foreign language learning is the important part of adjustment of higher education in the world. It is estimated that about 70% information is transmitted in English. And English is a media in the globalization process, playing a unique role and becoming the language of the world. Therefore, many countries are strengthening teaching English.
2) The needs of the composite senior professionals person by society.
Language is a communication tool, but as the the concept of education innovation and upgrading, people have realized that the language is not only a communication tool, but the tools of thinking, habits and measure of understanding the world. And it can change the attitude to the world and philosophy of students. Based on this understanding, bilingual education defined by means or by whatever goal is integral part of quality education. The purpose of quality education is the concept of bilingual teaching, namely train trans-century talents.
How to cultivate high professional quality, familiar with relevant international rules, mastering English language professional talents, has become the responsibility of institutions of higher education. And also is a strategic points of teaching reform. "Yu Zixin's new ideas represented most bilingual teaching researchers' idea. Enhancing the overall quality of students is the purpose of cultivate compound senior specialized professionals. The basic elements of communication is language. And the ability of fluency language is constitute of the comprehensive qualities of students. Because the needs of society, bilingual teaching is becoming the important mean for higher education.
3) The need of foreign language teaching reform
Bilingual teaching is localization of cultivating and improving students' ability through foreign languages subject teaching. Create the chance for students to use the language, and make sure they can use foreign language in academic conference.
Most experts think that, for the vast majority of people, English is just a language tool. There is no need to require them to mater the foreign language as well as their native language. "Bilingual education" is not only the English language learning, but to cultivate students thinking, intelligent structure, cultural quality. And in the open environment, maximization the students potential in English teaching. it is also a breakthrough and a higher standard in current English teaching. Through the media "bilingual education", provides students a English environment to application their skill, so as to improve the students' English seeing, hearing, saying and thinking ability, satisfied social need on international cooperation consciousness, international exchange and competitive ability. Generally speaking, when the teachers and students reached higher level in English teaching and learning, the effect of bilingual teaching will be very obvious. Scholars who is back from overseas, due to make full use of the skillful English expression and mastering professional frontier, will be qualified the bilingual education work.
2. How to apply bilingual education.
Bilingual education refers to the use of two languages as the medium to learn subject knowledge, for example, geography lesson, math, history and etc, to achieve the purpose of mastering the language. That is to say, bilingual education is not through language course to realize the target of language education, but in the learning of other subjects to help learners to master two languages. Bilingual education basic principle is insisting use purpose language when teacher give lectures to students. Whether introduce knowledge or answer questions, teachers should use the target language all the time. To do so is to provide students with more language input information. Let them have access to the target language. And more important and meaningful is to let students be unconscious contacting the purpose language. Due to the need of study, students will naturally produces the motivation and interest to learn this language. This purpose and interests will last along time than simply learn language courses.
As for student, the students who take part in bilingual lecture should put their attention on how the style of class is. They don't need to deliberately attentionuse the language forms, but try to absorb and understand the language knowledge (patterns, vocabulary, etc.). Students have motivation to master the target language, whether the motive is to use the language to integrate into the foreign country, or consider the language as a tool and use it to obtain information, carries on the interpersonal exchange or other activities. In addition, in the process of being familiar with target language, students try their best to use the target language to express their opinions. When the ability and conditions permit, expand the activities outside the classroom. However, students don't get bogged down in using the target language. If language not competence, student can adopt native language to express.
Because the class need to sustainable use of the target language, a premise or requirement of practicing bilingual education is that the teachers must have a full language ability. So teachers can use English at any time. Another condition is that teachers can best understand students' native language, so them can understand students possible difficulties easily. Once students have difficulties in expression, teachers can timely to impose a helping hand. So bilingual education is usually carry out in a group students who come from the same culture and language background. If the students come from different countries and regions, taken different first language, it would be very difficult to implement bilingual education. In this case, the students only have to go through foreign language lessons to learn the target language by themselves.
Using language education to pushing language ability development, this is the essence of bilingual education.#p#分页标题#e#
3. The present situation of bilingual education in China.
1) Policy guidance
In higher education, August 17 2001, ministry of education issued . This file require that using English to teach basic courses and professional course must reach 10% in state key construction of institutions in 3 years. August 21 2001, A based education work conference held in Shanghai, decided to establish 100 bilingual teaching experimental school, which would set English courses in grade one, hoping students can use English when they graduate from high school. Also hope Shanghai education level would over the whole world moderately developed countries' until 2005.
In October 2001, Guangdong province education department decide to choose 10 class conducting whole English subject studying from five provincial demonstrative high school. At the same time, the department would write teaching materials and auxiliary teaching software with cantonese characteristics. They also work out standards for graduated from high school and middle school and explore to add oral examination for high school graduation exam. In 2005 Guangzhou, English education level will be improved obviously. And ability of using English in the same age group students from urban centres, the pearl river delta region, Hong Kong and east South Asia reach the same level. Obviously, English education pushed forward by the different education department in high school.
2) Course planning
The main purpose of implementing bilingual education is to promote the students' English ability to meet needs of students' future development. Previously, the foreign language is just a subject, one of the three core of the curriculum, and the other two are mathematics, Chinese. Compared with other disciplines, many students spent most energy and time in English learning, but still not achieve the desired effect. Different bilingual school have different norms and settings in bilingual courses, teachers and teaching environment. Concerning bilingual schools' courses setting, should enhance the students' bilingual ability as main point. We must pay attention to the following four points:
① In the school, curriculum design must connect to student's life. Language is based on life, so does the bilingual education.
② Implementation methods and means of court of bilingual school should be flexible and diversified. Consider local students, teachers and the actual situation as a starting point, and whether improving students' bilingual capacity as inspection criteria.
③ Bilingual talent cultivation is not the training of technical staff, not only just improving English level. In the curriculum design of the school, we should think over any kinds of students, and achieves the rich variety. Let the students in different levels and different abilities can obtain successful experience, having the confidence to learn foreign languages, increasing self learning efficiency.
④ Students in different age have different characteristics, so the school curriculum design should consider developmental and continuity of the language learning.
About the teaching method, the main measure in the bilingual teaching is using English to teach basic discipline knowledge. The purpose is that students can learn discipline knowledge at the same time learn a foreign language well. There are basically three types of bilingual teaching mode.①Whole foreign language mode. The courses all use English textbooks and all teaching in English. So students accept all knowledge in the form of English. This is the high level of bilingual teaching mode, and the teachers and students should have good command of English ability.
②Mix mode. This bilingual teaching model, using English textbooks, teachers use English and Chinese alternatively when carry out the teaching. To the students who study new curriculum classes or teachers who are just beginning to teach the class, both teachers and students can accept this mode. And this mode adjust to students' learning psychology demand. This mode belongs to a lower level when compare to whole foreign language mode.
③Half foreign language mode. This bilingual teaching mode belong to relatively junior teaching mode, using English textbooks, but use Chinese to teach students. The used this kind of teaching model, mainly because the students' basic knowledge of foreign language and understand ability are weak.They need some time to get the ability of learning discipline knowledge in English.
4. The problems of bilingual education.
As a Chinese college fresh affair, the bilingual teaching exists some sorts of difficulties and problems. Administrative department of education and school leaders should pay more attention to that. To sum up, the problem are these:
1) The bilingual teachers are seriously insufficient.
Bilingual teaching staff shortage is a common problem. At present most middle-aged teachers of colleges have master or doctor degree. Although they have foreign language foundation, but the vast majority of them have no more than one year experience of working or studying abroad. Most professional subject teachers' English ability is not comprehensive, performancing good at vocabularies, grammar and reading ability, but poor at speaking, listening and writing. But the bilingual teaching require teachers have comprehensive utilization ability, especially oral and writing ability. The current situation is that the teachers who can master foreign language have no professional knowledge, and the ones who understand professional knowledge, their oral English ability is relatively low. The the serious shortage of bilingual teachersis restrict the development of bilingual education.
2) Suitable bilingual textbooks are relative shortage.
Textbook is the indispensable element or medium to implement teaching process. Chosen appropriate bilingual teaching materials is a difficult and complicated problem. It has close relationship to syllabus issued by the state, standard and curriculum of class. So it must be extremely cautious in the selection of teaching materials. Bilingual teaching must use a foreign language textbooks. These authentic English teaching materials can lay the foundation for students, creating a "not learn English but apply English" environment. And these textbooks can avoid their free editing teaching material and cause subjects arbitrary and language expression warp. In practice there are a series of problems. Firstly, channel for teachers select the original textbooks is narrow. Secondly, because some textbooks usage is small, expensive and etc, foreign original excellent teaching material are hard to introduce from abroad.
3) Students' foreign language level irregular, teaching is facing practical difficulties.
For the influence of Examination-oriented education, college students' foreign language application ability common belong to "high-grades but low ability". Although the college students having been learning foreign language for many years, they have quite lots of vocabularies, but listening ability is poor. They master the public English vocabulary but few professional subject vocabulary. They difficult to adapt bilingual teaching. This is another important factor the effecting bilingual teaching promotion.
Reference:Zhang Yuming, (2010) Bilingual teaching in China development outline, Journal of Tianzhong Yan Jinru, (2006) Bilingual teaching strategy, Guangxi education press Wang Xudong, (2002) Bilingual teaching and thinking, http://www.edu.cn/ong _he205/20060323/t20060323_25585.shtm1 College of management, (2008) Existing problems of bilingual teaching in universities, Jining medical school newspaper