2022英文essay美国留学生人力资源类essay论文：国际贸易下的劳工标准问题分析Globalization International T
First, the history of international labor standards and characteristics一、国际劳工标准的历程和特点
As globalization progresses, trade between countries is also growing , international labor standards and international trade linkages in the growing international trade in international labor standards is increasingly becoming the world's governments and the academic focus of attention . " International labor standards " (InternationaILobourStandards) refers to the world in order to promote the protection of the basic rights of workers by the International Labour Organization (InternationaILabouOrganization, IL0) introduced labor Conventions and Recommendations . These Conventions and Recommendations aim is to promote the protection of the basic rights of workers around the world , and its development with economic globalization process together. The connotation of international labor standards , narrow trade interests should refer to the relevant standard labor conditions , including workers' wages , working hours working conditions, working environment , benefits , etc., but also includes a broad prohibition of forced labor , freedom of association , organization and right to collective bargaining , and the elimination of exploitative child labor clear discrimination in employment and so on.随着全世界化进程项的不断推进，各国之间的商业活动往来也不断提高，国际劳工标准与国际商业活动的结合在一天比一天加强，国际商业活动中的国际劳工标准问题一天比一天变成世界各国政府和学术界关心注视的热点。
Judging from the nature , scope of international labor standards of international law , but it is compared with the general international law , but also has its own characteristics. First, the international labor standards reflects the government , employers and workers to jointly improve working conditions tripartite spirit , better take care of the interests of constituents . Secondly, the international labor standards applicable to the vast majority of Conventions and Recommendations are based on adjusted Member States' domestic labor relations as the goal . And the international labor Conventions and Recommendations , though by all member states of the International Labour Conference to participate in a two-thirds majority vote , but it does not occur directly after the adoption of effective, must be approved by member governments can the ratifiers produce binding.将劳工标准与国际商业活动相挂钩这一提议具备较长的历史渊源，早在WT0的前身GATT一段时间就已经提出过。随着国际商业活动的不断提高，2O百年90时代，国际社会形态又掀起了新一轮关于劳工标准的紧张争辩。
Labor standards and international trade will be linked to this proposal has a long history , as early WT0 predecessor GATT period has been proposed before. As international trade continues to grow , 2O 1990s , the international community has set off a new round of fierce debate on labor standards . International labor standards has a dual function, and regulation of labor relations within Member States and regulate the role of trade competition between countries . International labor standards through international organizations and developed countries under the auspices of the trade agreements , trying to gradually formed in the WTO and international trade organizations linked mechanism .
Second, the international trade practice labor standards
With the development of economic globalization , WTO on trade and labor issues within the core of the debate is the issue of labor standards . American countries in the development of the degree of integration in the global economy gradually improve the situation , proposed by developed countries is linked to labor standards and trade between developed and developing countries in the United States struggle with increasingly fierce international trade performance.
Labor standards is a very controversial issue , although the development of the United States and developed countries on this issue, there are obvious differences, however , labor standards are a step by step to be included in the field of multilateral trade discussions but it is an indisputable fact . Western countries trying to labor issues into the WTO framework and in regional or bilateral trade agreements entered into labor provisions or additional labor standards and international trade linkages , as well as in domestic law to be provided , so that labor issues and international trade be linked legal support and legitimize , which are detrimental to the development of American countries .
Western countries also adopted SA8000 certification , etc. will both hooks. SA8000 social responsibility standards in business development, greater account of human development , and economic development which aim is to let more people enjoy the benefits of social development and progress coincide . But SA8000 as a tool of trade barriers , labor standards, the content is , it has a hidden , flexibility and operability characteristics. The development of US countries, labor costs are the biggest comparative advantages , while SA80O0 development will greatly weaken the United States this advantage . Tariff and non-tariff barriers in particular generally continue to be cut today, it is very easy to be exploited by trade protectionism , as restrictions on the development of labor-intensive exports American countries the tools . If in the short term , to enforce a uniform labor standards , will enable developing countries in international trade in the United States relative advantage gone , so that the development of the U.S. national rate of development fundamentally affected.
Labor standards to be developed as one of the tools to use non-tariff barriers , was developed to implement a new trade protectionist measures. Labor standards will be developed by respect for human rights and international trade linked to the implementation of global labor standards in order to improve the development of national human rights situation in the United States , which on the surface has its rational side . If WT0 rules enforced through labor standards , low labor standards will be sanctioned countries , which can only exacerbate poverty and the improvement of working conditions postponed . The development of US countries, respect for labor from starting its objective historical development , respect for the human rights of its unique situation , the only way to fundamentally improve their labor conditions, international trade can be truly healthy development.
Thus, while the law , as well as practice, international labor standards and international trade linkages in growing , have national labor standards and expectations will be linked to international trade , but I believe that these two should not be hastily linked , should make both progressive harmony. Norms of corporate social responsibility , protection of labor rights and promote fair trade. Global economic integration is a historical necessity , labor standards and international trade relations must also conform to the historical trend going forward .
Third, the United States International Trade and labor standards with cystic responses
The United States is the world 's largest trading nation and a member of the WTO , the wave of globalization , the increasingly international labor standards by the international community 's attention. It should be acknowledged that the U.S. labor standards not only reach the proposed labor standards in developed countries , even with ILO labor standards established by comparison , the United States there are still some gaps. In the long run , the United States should gradually reach an agreement with international labor standards , and actively participate in and promote the international community to deal with international labor standards , promote the development of international trade .
(one ) expedite the ratification of international labor conventions. United States in the ratification of international labor conventions exist two problems: First, the number of less than normal , the second is slow progress ratification . U.S. approval of some of the more appropriate basic conditions for conventions, fundamentally speaking , to accelerate the ratification of international labor conventions , is conducive to the United States in the field of international labor take the initiative to help expand the international influence of the United States , the United States is more in the ILO advantageous position, but also help the United States develop technical cooperation with the ILO and get their assistance . The United States should close attention to international labor standards and labor standards and trade issues new developments , the collection and translation of the main trading partner has been published and implemented by the labor regulations and standards.
( Two ) the United States as the largest developing countries, the United States should objectively look at labor standards , it is necessary to fight international discourse , but also timely and appropriately raise labor standards , so as to reduce trade friction , improve economic efficiency, promote social development . With economic influence rising , we should be suitable for large national identity status , suitable for large power status conditions play an active role , especially in what is core labor standards and how to promote the implementation of these standards and other substantive issues , and actively clarify their own view , efforts to participate in labor standards. We should not blindly fear of labor standards into the WTO will hurt U.S. competitiveness , the key is to have a fair, effective liaison mechanism to safeguard national interests. Should start from their own , to improve labor conditions in the United States , and gradually establish international labor standards consistent with national labor standards.
( Three ) improving U.S. labor laws and regulations, improve the social security system. In order to encourage enterprises to achieve and on the issue of labor standards to meet the demands of international competition , master and adapt to international labor standards and world trade rules and practices is critical to . In principle, the United States and international labor standards, including labor law, including the domestic legislation is in harmony with international standards . Improve the labor laws and regulations , and continuously improve the level of domestic labor standards. A high degree of " labor standards consciousness " to solve and handle corporate labor standards . U.S. government should actively create conditions to help companies effectively protect workers' rights , adhere to the people-oriented concept of development will be through international competition in the enterprise . Further improve the U.S. labor legislation to change U.S. labor law system suited to a market economy requires the passive situation.
Global economic integration is a historical necessity , the United States has with the international labor standards closely linked to international labor standards and awareness of the significance of understanding has exceeded any previous time . International labor standards and international trade is also growing relevance , to follow the historical trend harmony progressive forward. Therefore, the United States should pay more attention to international labor standards, and to quicken the pace of ratification of international labor conventions , improve and strengthen the domestic labor legislation more effectively protect their labor rights , this is not only the needs of the United States foreign trade , it is the United States social stability and development. We should have a clear understanding of , and actively improve labor conditions, improve labor standards and take full advantage of the opportunities of economic globalization , the U.S. labor standards consistent with international labor standards , in line with world trade.