2022英文essay美国留学生管理类essay论文指导服务：中国文化下的员工管理分析Exploring the implication of Chin
Hofstadter Cultural Dimensions and Performance霍夫施塔特文化的尺寸和性能
Hofstede is credited with pioneering the most influential work on cultural measurement. In the earlier versions of his work Hofstedeindentified four dimension of culture which highlighted the differences of the cultural norms in multinational companies, namely individualism versus collectivism; power difference; uncertainty avoidance; masculinity and femininity. In his research Holfstedeanalysed the behaviour of employees and managers across fifty three national subsidiaries of IBM to reach his conclusions (Hofstede, 1980). However in later year further research, with questions prepared by the Chinese Value Survey (Hong Kong) lead to the addition of a fifth dimension to list, namely long term versus short term orientation (Hofstede et al, 1987). Furthermore the results of the survey showed that the Chinese culture differed from Western culture in terms of its values on masculinity and uncertainty avoidance, it was also noted in the same paper that these was a significant gap in western and eastern countries on issues of power difference, individualism and long term orientation. However critics of Hofstede point out that in his work Hofstede was using the measurement of a single organization to make general claims about national cultural differences (Korman, 1985; Robinson, 1983), whereas other criticise it for focusing too much on attitude surveys (Schooler, 1983; Sondergaard, 1994), despite these critiismsHofstede's work still remains a pillar to the study of cultures (Sondergaard, 1994).霍夫斯泰德计入开拓文化的测量，最有影响力的工作。在早期版本中，他的工作四个层面的文化，强调跨国公司，即个人主义与集体主义的文化规范的差异;功率差，不确定性规避，阳刚与阴柔。在他的研究Holfstedeanalysed ，跨越53国家附属公司IBM的员工和经理的行为，以达到他的结论（霍夫斯泰德，1980） 。
Individualism-Collectivism个人主义 – 集体主义
Hofstede's research showed that individualism gives arise to a form of selfishness in people that lead them encourage them to prioritise and pursue their interest. In an individualistic society this allows them to take control of their own actions to pursue goals that full fills their utility (Laura, 2011), where as in a collective society people tend to consider the needs of the whole group before their own interests, and fell spiritually obligated to contribute towards further the cause of their group and maintaining a loyalty towards their organzation (Xiao, 2009). For example in countries such as the UK, USA individuals place a stronger emphasis on personal interests over that of others where as in countries such as China and Japan interaction with other members in the society is a very important concept and a person's identity is defined by the identity of the group he or she is a member of (Brislin, 1993).霍夫斯泰德的研究表明，个人主义给人自私的人，带领他们鼓励他们优先考虑和追求自己的利益的形式出现。在一个个人主义的社会，这使他们能够采取控制自己的行动追求的目标，其效用充分填充（劳拉2011年），其中在一个集体的社会，人们往往会考虑自己的利益之前整个集团的需求，下降，精神上有义务有助于进一步引起他们的小组，并保持一个忠诚度朝着他们的organzation（肖，2009）。
Ideas such as leadership, decision making, de-centralisation, centralisation are interrelated concepts and are important factors that affect the management of an organisation. In high power distance societies there is a strong reliance on leaders, managers for decision making and guidance in the process setting up a preference for centralised decision making where subordinates execute tasks without too much thought (Xiao, 2009). This trait is more prevalent in Asian countries where as in European countries employees are encouraged to participate in generating ideas and making decision in a bid to ensure that employee talent is fully utilized (Xiang, 2008). For example in France the power distance in society is very high whereas is countries such as Israel and Sweden the converse is true. Furthermore in France where the power difference is high managers keep their distance from subordinates, do not socially with subordinates and offer their subordinates little space in terms of negotiating assignments; whereas in countries such as Sweden where the power difference is very low subordinates and worker groups have a higher influence over their assignments and work environment (Adler, 1991)
People from different backgrounds react differently to the notion of uncertainty as their understand of and knowledge about the term differs significantly (Xiao, 2009). Uncertainty avoidance manifests itself when individuals in a society fear when tasked with a uncertain situation, this leads to anxiety and stress, in some circumstances it is able to force people to look forward to future predictability, and is generally widespread in cultures where people feel they need written rules to perform properly (Hofstede, 2007). In cultures that measure high in uncertainty avoidance individuals tend to prefer stable jobs, desire secure lives, avoid conflict and generally have lower tolerance for ideas, individuals who challenge the norm. As such in countries such as Japan that measure which in this aspect the tolerance for deviation from socially, culturally accepted behaviour (Tosi et al, 2000).
Hofstede further argued that ideas of masculinity and femininity have varying levels of influence and generate differing views and opinion in different cultures, furthermore he noted that in societies with high level of masculinity the roles of genders are very well defined where men are perceived as being confident, determined and materialistic and women are required to be modest, gentle and more interest in maintaining their quality of life (Laura, 2011). Whereas Femininity is based on ideas of equality and solidarity. For example in countries such as USA, Japan and Germany ,where the culture is highly masculine, job structures are highly differentiated with roles being filled entirely by women or men. There is more focus on achievements in these countries and jobs roles tend to be more challenging (Hofstede, 1991). In highly masculine cultures individuals tend to be more assertive compared to feminine cultures, in addition there is lesser focus on the quality of the work environment. On the contrary in countries such as Sweden, Norway who score higher in Femininity there is a stronger emphasis on maintaining a quality work environment, ensuring that employees are satisfied with jobs and ensuring that employees participate in decision making processes.
Long-term Orientation v Short-term Orientation
Long-term orientation focuses on the future values that emphasis on the future considerationwith a dynamic view, and pay attention on saving, thrift and reserves (Xiao, 2009, pp. 127-128).Short-term orientation concerns about immediate interests, respects tradition, regards socialresponsibility (Xiao, 2009, pp. 127-128). In the operation management, it will consider theshort-term profit rather than long-term one (Kim, Wright, & Su, 2010). This dimension is a measure of a culture's views of the future. for example in Western countries who display short term orientationOrganizational BehaviourCommunications ProcessCommunication is a vital took for the success of business, however the way in which people from different cultures may communicate differ significantly in terms of verbal, written language usage and in terms of the non verbal communication they display. In addition people speaking the same language but from different regions, cultures may communicate in entirely different way. For example even though English is the most prevalent language in the USA and the UK, the communications process in these countries show marked differences, so much so that the same words can mean two different things in these countries. Furthermore different cultures may exhibit different form of verbal communication, namely direct style, where individuals expresses their true feeling through the words they choose to speak, and indirect styles, where individuals 'dilly dally' around the subject in order to hide their true feelings. For example in the USA individuals say 'No' directly without feeling that they have offended someone, where as in countries such as Korea whre there is a preference for the indirect communication style individuals are more likely to use phrases like 'It might be possible' or 'It is an interesting idea' whereas in reality they are expressing their disagreement to the issue at hand. the direct style communication process in more prevalent in individualistic, low context and vise versa (Brislin, 1993).
The culture in a country also has significant on the non verbal communication process (i.e. facial expressions, eye contact, posture etcetc ) that permeates that society. For example, although smiling is often the sign of happiness, pleasure in some Asian countries a smile may be construed as embarrassment, or a show of discomfort (Porter, 1991).In addition one can easily notice the intensive use of hand gestures while conversing in countries such as Greece, Italy, where as gesture arae less common in the Chinese, Japanese culture (Abbasi et al, 1993).
The ways people sense and deal with conflicts also vary from culture to culture. In low context cultures, where the world is viewed in analytic and liner logic conflicts are often seen as being instrumentally oriented and issues are kept separate from people. Public disagreement on issues are nt frowned upon, and individuals are able to maintain an amicable relationship while still have a disagreement, whereas in high context cultures disagreements are taken personally, and public, open disagreement may be interpreted as an insult and could amount to that personal loosing face in society (Gundykunst et al, 1988). Conflict materialises in these cultures for different reason, in low context culture, where there are less instructions on how to behave appropriately, it manifests itself when one individual fails to meet the expectation of another. In high context cultures where social protocols are more formally defined conflict usually arises when an individual fail to maintain cultural expectations. Furthermore in low context cultures where people are more action oriented individuals involved in the conflict want conflicts to be resolved in a swift efficient and quick manner where as in high context customers individuals involved in confrontation are often evasive, and often ignore and avoid the conflict.
. Managing Change
Different cultures how varying levels of sensitivity to change with some cultures actively resisting change, adapting to change very slowly and trying to prevent outside influences in a bid to preserve traditional process, customs and behaviour. Other cultures quickly adapt to change however there may be segments in the those culture that perceive change as a threat, and try to re-establish traditional values. Then again there are culture that are ambivalent. i.e. they embrace, fear and resists change simultaneously (Treven, 2001).
Motivation and Rewards
The culture of the country in which a business operates in has an significant impact on the motivation techniques that may be employed to inspire the employees in the business. For example in countries such as China that score high in collective behaviour singling out an employee and rewards them may embarrass them, and thus demotivate employees, in such high context collective cultures social norms, protocols and behaviours are very clearly defined. Furthermore the perceptions of rewards in cultures also vary in line with Hofstede's masculinity versus femininity dimensions. For example in masculine societies individuals prefer to receive materialistic rewards such as money, shares or other status enhancing rewards, whereas in feminine cultures rewards tend to be offered and gladly accepted in the form of time off from work, improved work related benefits or symbolic rewards (Hofstede, 1997).
Cultural Factor and Job Performance
In order for organizations to achieve high levels of success they need to have a strong, positive culture along with a well defined, concise, efficient set of values and beliefs that gives it a competitive edge (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Kotter&Heskett 1992). However culture has an important impact on employee behaviour and is able to influence the performance of individuals and hence the organisation's performance. Positively, only if it is able to adapt to needs of the local and global environment it operates in, in addition this culture must have unique traits that set it apart from others, traits that cannot be imitated by others (Lewis, 1998; Lim, 1995). There have been several extensive researched that have been conducted by academics which clearly identify the link between culture and employee performance (Calori&Sarnin, 1991; Kotter&Heskett, 1992). For example it was noticed that organisations where emloyees has strong cultural strength were able to excel at generating short term financial performance (Mishra, 1995), others such as Schneider (1990) conducted research that showed that organisations that placed a sstrong focus on culture were more successful and concluded that focused cultures are able to generate better results. However although cultural aspects may lead the success of an organisation in a specific national environment the same may not hold true in another (Chow et al, 1996).
Problems to discover:This dissertation has two main objectives one of which is to analyse Chinese Culture using the Hofstede's dimensions and relate them with the working styles and performance of Chinese employees. Furthermore I will be examining the cultural influences on management, leadership styles in China and how they impact employee performance. This will give important insight in relation to the strategies that may be used to enhance employee job satisfaction and increase job efficiency in Chinese companies. Therefore we will first start off by analysing the Chinese culture, and its impact on Chinese employees, which will be followed by a thorough analysis of the cultural influences on management in Chinese, employees and the dynamic relationship that exists between these three phenomenons. Furthermore the following questions will be asked:Background of the target company:Zhejiang Zhongcheng Group is a construction engineering company. It was established 1992 in shaoxingcity Zhejiang province in China to analyses the relationship between employee satisfaction and management style.