2022订制作文约克大学University of York:建构社会诚信体系框架研究
"Comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development concept," is the basic requirements of the scientific development concept. The central government "five balances" (balancing urban and rural development, regional development, economic and social development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordination, and domestic development and opening-up), its focus is the "coordination." Among them, the overall economic and social development is an important task is to promote the construction of social credit system, therefore, the construction of social credit system, for optimizing the environment for economic development, implement the scientific concept of development is of great significance.“全面、协调、可持续的发展观”，是科学发展观的基本要求。中央提出“五个统筹”(统筹城乡发展、统筹区域发展、统筹经济社会发展、统筹人与自然和谐发展、统筹国内发展和对外开放)，其着眼点就是“协调”。其中，统筹经济社会发展的一个重要任务就是推进社会诚信体系的建设，因此，研究社会诚信体系的构建，对于优化经济发展环境、落实科学发展观具有重要的意义。
Social credit system is a complex system, in terms of form, including moral integrity and trade credit; speaking from the hierarchy, including basic protection layer, discipline and self-control layer barrier layer; From the content perspective, including personal integrity and organizational integrity. The author attempts from the perspective of the content of social credit system construction.社会诚信体系是一个复杂的系统，从形式上讲，包括诚信道德和交易信用;从层次上讲，包括基础保障层、他律控制层及自律屏障层;从内容上讲，包括个人诚信和组织诚信。笔者试图从其内容的角度探讨社会诚信体系的构建。
A government integrity is the cornerstone of social credit systemhttp://www.ukassignment.org/yjfflw/一政府诚信是社会诚信体系的基石
The integrity of the government is the government's credibility, the government has a good faith basis and oriented role, directly determines the credit market environment. In the interaction between government and society, the government virtue good or bad, whether the integrity of the government, for businesses, individuals and the whole social credit enormous impact. Government Integrity matters of public welfare of society, and only the public happiness, have a good social atmosphere of honesty. Of course, one can not imagine that one can not do even the integrity of the government can have courage, temperance, justice and wise virtue. A harmonious unity government to streamline efficiency, sincere cooperation, the social and the public credible, bona fide, then the government will honor a full, confident and responsible government, in its management of the public also must be peaceful , no alert, the public can enjoy unlimited happiness. In such circumstances, even if the economy is not developed in a society, the public is not very rich, but in a country where the mind serene happiness, good faith, are also bound to the people and society is widely respected and consciously pursued. Without government's credibility would be no society's integrity, a government in the whole society to establish a good credit environment, it must first be a credit to his government.政府的诚信就是政府的公信力，政府诚信具有基础性和导向性的作用，直接决定着市场环境的信用状况。在政府与社会的互动关系中，政府德性的好坏，政府是否诚信，对企业、个人乃至整个社会信用的影响巨大。政府是否诚信事关公众的福社，而只有公众幸福，才有良好的社会诚信氛围。人们当然不可想像，一个连诚信都做不到的政府能够具有勇敢、节制、正义和明智的美德。一个政府内部和谐团结、精简效率、精诚合作，对社会和公众言而有信，诚实无欺，那么这个政府必是一个充满荣誉、自信和责任的政府，在它管理下的公众也必是安详、无需戒备、能享受到无限幸福的公众。
Honesty is the government establish a sound social credit system is a necessary prerequisite. Social credit system can be divided according to their contents as government credit, corporate credit, bank credit, personal credit or citizens credit, credit schools, hospitals and many other aspects of credit, which the government credit is the center of gravity of the whole credit system, build public trust in government is build real businesses, banks and the integrity of individuals and other prerequisites. Government to establish the integrity of the individual's credit constraint effect produced, public punishment for evading the government is bound in economic activities to maintain good credit. As the "economic man" of the enterprise in economic activity in pursuit of profit maximization as the goal, if there is no government guarantee, often appear to harm the interests of their own community and the public benefit of the phenomenon. In fact, the company's normal activities to be undertaken, business integrity in economic activities play a role in reducing transaction costs, is based on the trust of enterprises for the national system, that credit for good government dependency. Similarly, the bank's activities and the establishment of bank credit is to rely on the national credit. As the central bank monetary policy implementers credit is actually an aspect of government credit, and profit for the purpose of commercial bank lending, deposits and other services need to rely on government credit. In this process, the government credit on the one hand to protect the bank credit for individuals or the public's trust, it also protects the public's trust for banks. Strengthen the integrity of the building is to implement the "Three Represents" important thought, and promote the coordinated development of three major civilizations and implement the scientific concept of development are urgently needed. Congress report and Comrade Hu Jintao in the "Three Represents" theory of speech on the seminar were once proposed building a moderately prosperous society and create a new situation in the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics, that is, under the leadership of the party, the development of social socialist market economy, socialist democracy and socialist advanced culture, and constantly promote socialist material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization coordination development, promote the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. While strengthening the social credit system construction, it is to promote the coordinated development of three civilizations is one important point. From the perspective of political civilization since ancient times, honesty is "for the government of the Road," "for the government's wish," is the basic norms governing the country. History and reality have shown that a regime, the one political party or, ultimately depends on its future and destiny of popular support. In the new historical period, with the people's democratic awareness, gain public trust honestly become ruling. If false, exaggerated, lost bit unfair, capricious or abuse of power and so full of style, government ethics, we can not win the trust, there is loss of the masses, the danger of losing its ruling position. A lack of credibility of the society or the country in any case is not able to establish a sound market economy system. Therefore, in our current building and perfecting the socialist market economic system in the process of building a social credit system vigorously imperative, and the government to establish the integrity of the entire building blocks of social credit system. The construction of social credit system, you must first start from the social aspects of public power, to create credit the government and the social credit system construction this as a top priority. Regulate the government's behavior, strictly fulfill their commitment to the community. Government agencies, judicial, administrative and law enforcement authorities and public opinion to accept the people's supervision, strict compliance with the lead Connaught and trustworthy, reflecting the public and governing for the people; to enhance the legal awareness, to carry out administration according to law, and impartial law enforcement, clean and fair, improve efficiency improve the service attitude and other aspects of vocational education. Improve administrative transparency, standardize procedures and improve credibility, win the trust of society, it is the integrity of the model. Two personal integrity is the fundamental social credit system In the social and economic life, the individual is the most basic act "units", the government, businesses, etc., may be seen as founded on a contractual basis by the individual form of organization, through its various behavioral activity behavior of individuals to achieve. Both in the individual's daily life, or in the economic activities of social subjects, integrity as a basic moral values and codes of conduct are beyond doubt. However, with the development of society and the establishment of a socialist market economic system, the integrity of the Chinese nation, the most basic moral values in social life unnoticed, forgotten, especially due to some of the negative impact of the market economy, so that some people in the When faced with the temptation of various interests, and abandoned integrity, mercenary, unscrupulous, the traditional moral education in the market economy is a challenge, leading to social credibility crisis, and affects all levels of society. Although corporate dishonesty organizational behavior, but in the final analysis is the result of dishonest behavior of entrepreneurs into the sky, is the lack of personal integrity performance. Some leading cadres advantage of his position as a normal economic behavior erect card for illegal economic behavior given the green light to line their own pockets, they deceive the nations, to deceive the people. Students have been known as the "day of the chair," relatively high quality of people, but now there are some students lack credibility, the performance of such work from plagiarism to cheating on exams, but also to steal from the loans are not possessions, from the class cadre, Scholarships vote fraud in false documents to graduation, casual breach of contract and other acts. Face of endless promises phenomenon, many people raised credibility questions about how far away from us, it is no longer easy to trust others, but wary attitude to look with suspicion the people around them, which severely affecting the interaction between people and economic development. More frightening is that many people began to "eye for an eye, but also a person's body," which makes dishonesty become a widespread social phenomenon. If the basic cell of society as a general lack of personal integrity, then it will become a social integrity Building castles in the air, unable to build.#p#分页标题#e# In recent years, personal integrity system construction has attracted widespread attention, and there had been some progress, but there are still many problems, one personal integrity of data is not comprehensive, the second is the lack of scientific evaluation of personal credit uniform standards, three for the individual acts of dishonesty and lack of effective restraint punishment mechanism. We should be in the personal integrity of the system on the basis of preliminary practice, learn from foreign experience, combined with our specific conditions, from various manpower to further build our personal integrity of the system, specifically, mainly to establish a sound system in the following aspects: First, personal integrity file system. Establish and improve the personal integrity of the file system, not only to ensure that the personal integrity of the information is accurate, complete and timely information to be able to achieve the collection and facilitate aggregation and query. This can be done manually from the following aspects: (1) clearly defined personal integrity of the contents of the file should be included; cultural information, employment information, tax information, judicial records, welfare insurance records, credit history and assets. (2) to establish personal integrity data collection system. Given our country's public security, judicial, procuratorial, tax, employer, commercial banks, insurance companies, hospitals and other providers of personal integrity data most directly and indirectly by the government to manage and control, some units even that government departments, so as long as The Government is determined, it can give full play to our strengths, to establish our unique system of regular information summary. (3) establish a unified personal integrity data coding system: the personal integrity of the data locked in a fixed coding, coding and each and each person has the correspondence between economic activity, all of the necessary personal data are stored in the yard , as long as produce personal credit code, you can query the information required. Second, the personal credit evaluation system. The information on the integrity of the file data processing, a comprehensive analysis of personal credit evaluation of the relevant information to complete the classification, comparison, calculation, analysis, judgment processing procedure, in order to ultimately gain access to the individual's overall credit rating. To establish by a professional personal credit rating agencies unified personal credit evaluation system. To this end, credit institutions to train a group of excellent professional quality thinking, who are both good assessment theory and practice proficient evaluate complex professional credit assessment staff to ensure that the credit assessment of objective, impartial, to formulate a scientific and uniform evaluation criteria. Third, personal dishonesty punishment system. Punishment is to ensure that a system can have an important means of rigid constraints, therefore, breach of personal dishonesty, breach of contract according to the different circumstances of different levels to take appropriate punitive measures, including economic sanctions, legal sanctions and sanctions of public opinion, so the cost of default significantly outweigh the benefits, a dishonesty, straitjacket imposed so as to either implement the punishment for breach of contract, but also can promote the improvement of people concept of credit. In order to fully implement the punishment for breach dishonesty, there is a need to establish personal credit bankruptcy system. That is, when someone is not able to repay maturing debt, its creditors or other interested person may apply to the court, be declared bankrupt by the court. Once bankrupt, the debtor will face personal property to pay off debts to be frozen, and in a period of time can no longer use their personal credit engage in economic activity. Personal integrity system was established, the next task is to implement the system, we must proceed from the following aspects:First, to accelerate the development suited to China's national conditions and laws to regulate the use of rigid mechanisms integrity. Throughout the ages, from the beginning, was listed in good faith morality, people mostly think should be starting from the ideological, moral integrity and value conscious identity, to have an impact on their behavior and constraints. But with the development of commodity economy, in order to prevent individual interests against the interests of others, against the interests of society, people began to require good faith by the principles of ethics in law, giving credibility to the coercive power of the law. In practice, countries are generally the integrity of the flexible ethics developed as a series of basic legal norms, asking people in the civil business practices must be faithful sincere, trustworthy bully to fulfill legal obligations; if violated, will assume the corresponding legal responsibility. This should make full use of legal mechanisms to protect law-abiding rigid, punishing offenders, the use of good faith with the coercive power of the law to ensure the integrity mechanisms fully functional. Overseas experience has shown that the establishment of laws and regulations and sound social credit system and management system to establish and implement safeguards. Second, the establishment of specialized institutions integrity management, centralized management and coordination of the credit network information. National Integrity Management System is a nationwide market integrity supervision and management behavior of the highest integrity and activity management system, in the specific operation should prevent "those policies, bull management." The Government should set up a special national credit bureau or Integrity Management Committee, the agency responsible for the work of one social credit system and the system's overall construction, two is to coordinate the relationship between various departments, so that the credit status information to communicate with each other. Especially in the credit system was established, public data scattered in the case by the specialized agencies to use its strengths to be responsible for coordination of macro-management, deployment, networking, in a shorter time and at lower cost to make credit database resources can be shared, the best use.Third, give full play to the administrative functions of various government departments to strengthen the integrity of supervision. The Government should make full use of the People's Bank, commercial banks, tax, business, civil affairs, quality and technical supervision, public security, foreign exchange management, customs and other departments existing monitoring system, integrating the necessary supervision and management of resources, and establish a national unified risk early warning system, release of credit information, announced credit "blacklist" and "red list." On the one hand, the government departments to formulate preferential policies to the "red list" trustworthy personal inclination, so that the recipient take full advantage of the benefits of good faith. On the other hand, the individual's bad credit record accurately column man "blacklist" to the public notice, will lose the trust of parties on the recipient's individual conflicts as dishonest side of the whole society, contradictions, dishonesty party discredited. Fourth, focus on integrity and education to enhance the overall social and moral standards. Through various measures to strengthen education and improve people's moral standards, to guide and motivate people to automatically honest and trustworthy, the integrity of the system is to implement a significant role. In ethical norms, the various subjects would consciously choose their egoism, hedonism and other self-serving nature of altruism opposite, so that honest desire to become members of society and conscious pursuit. Therefore, we must be committed to social integrity and moral construction, therefore, first of all should vigorously promote the integrity of the economic value of the whole society are fully aware of faith is a form of capital and wealth, should actively play a reputable brand benefits; without honesty is a short-term behavior, eventually broke. Second, should use a variety of media tools to guide people to good advice, in the whole society to form a "trustworthy glorious promises shameful" moral atmosphere. Again should vigorously develop education, to improve the overall social education and cultural enrichment level, so honest implementation of the system will provide a solid moral foundation.