Ⅰ. The Joy Luck ClubThe Joy Luck Club is written by a Chinese-American writer named Amy Tan、who was born in Oakland, California, in 1952. The novel includes anecdotes and stories of three generations of women, spanning a period of sixty to eighty years, and ending in the 1980s. It is a complex story of four Chinese women who come to America in order to escape their tragic lives in China and raise their respective American-born daughters. The mothers are ambitious for the daughters' future. They want the daughters both to succeed in America, and to remain Chinese. With broken English and limited knowledge about America, the mothers are upset with the fact that their daughters cannot understand their past and their hope.Lena would walk around the house with her eyes open as wide as possible so as to make them look European. Jing-mei denies during adolescence that she has any internal Chinese aspects, insisting that her Chinese identity is limited only to her external features. Waverly would have clapped her hands for joy during her teen years if her mother had told her that she did not look Chinese. They consider themselves American and go to great lengths to get rid of their marginal existence and alien status. They want to leave their Chinese traditions behind.While the daughters' stories usually involve their mothers, the mothers' stories tend to feature a distinct life, involving rather rigid family experiences in old China and their current relationship with their American daughters. Misunderstandings occur everywhere when they come together and try to communicate. In general, when first-generation Chinese immigrants settle in America, they frequently arouse a generalized animosity. Their "Chineseness" brings on a groundswell of discontent from mainstream residents.On the other hand, the U.S. born and educated second generation of Chinese- Americans cause little stir because their "Americanness" enables them to quickly adjust to local communities. However, while life in America may enhance the process of their acculturation, it also affects their self-image and identity as Americans and weakens their sense of solidarity as a community because of the limited Chinese-American cultural ties in America. By reading the novel readers may get insight into Chinese and American life style from double perspectives. All of the readers may see a "Chinese" story through "American" eyes, and vice versa. It is comparatively easier to analyze the conflicts between these two generations. The study of the cultural conflicts between Chinese Americans can serve as a new frame of reference for understanding life between two worlds and help explore new approaches to deal with the inter- and infra- Chinese differences.Ⅱ. Exploration of the Mother-daughter Relationship in The Joy Luck ClubThe Joy Luck Club explores the tender and tenacious bond between four daughters and their mothers. The daughters know one side of their mothers, but they don’t know about their earlier never spoken lives in China. The mothers want love and obedience from their daughters, but they don’t know the gifts that the daughters keep to themselves. It also explores the clash between Chinese culture and American culture. One way of understanding the difference is to look at communication in these cultures. Maybe to put it more exactly, it encloses the clash of low-context and high-context cultures in our Chinese culture.The mother-daughter relationship is a central theme in Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club. There are four central pairs of mothers and daughters: Suyuan Woo and Jing-mei Woo, An-mei Hsu and Rose Hsu Jordan, Lindo Jong and Waverly Jong, and Ying-ying St. Clair and Lena St. Clair. The mothers are all Chinese immigrant women who entered the United States after the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1943 while the daughters are fully assimilated American-born Chinese. The stories of these pairs are interwoven in four major segments with mothers and daughters telling their stories of how they came to be where they are in life.As a child, Jing-mei sets herself against her mother’s hopes for her and disappoints her mother as possible as she could. She makes her mother give up any efforts to foster her to be a prodigy. Still, her mother’s disappointment follows her into adulthood. She has never been a straight-A student. She does not attend Stanford University, and she drops out of school without earning her bachelor’s degree. Now that Suyuan has gone, Jing-mei no longer has a chance to win her mother’s approval or to live up to her mother’s expectations. Worse than that, she has never developed the courage to talk with her mother about her own need to decide on a course of action for herself, and she has never asked Suyuan why her ambitions for her daughter are so grand that Jing-mei can never be successful. In her late thirties, Jing-mei continues to be paralyzed by tremendous doubts about her abilities; she is insecure of her worth as a person. There are many conflicts and misunderstandings between Lindo and Waverly. Waverly always regards Lindo’s mother as her opponent, who plays games with her but knows more tricks than she has thought. She says: “My mother knows how to hit a nerve. And the pain I feel is worse than any other kind of misery. Because what she does always comes as a shock, exactly like an electric jolt, that grounds itself permanently in my memory." (Tan, 1989:126) Although the conflicts between An-mei and Rose are not so many as those between Lindo and Waverly, the readers can also find some between this pair of mother and daughter. Rose marries a Caucasian Ted, whom her mother regards as A Waiguoren. When she is baffled by her marriage problem, Rose firstly goes to talk about her marriage problem to many people, such as her friends, her psychiatrist, everybody it seems, except her mother. Born and brought up in America, Rose inevitably holds a prejudice against her mother and the Chinese culture. Naturally, she always believes that American culture is superior to Chinese culture and American version is always better. In her eyes, her mother symbolizes backwardness and ignorance. So when Rose comes up with her marriage problem, she would rather go to see a psychiatrist firstly than consult with her mother.Ying-ying and Lena is another pair of mother and daughter in The Joy Luck Club. Although Ying-ying thinks of herself and her daughter as having shared the same body, as being of the same flesh, she also sees Lena exists on a distant shore. Obviously, the mother and the daughter are separated from each other from the time when Lens was born and inevitably there is great gap between them. These conflicts are caused by the differences of the two cultures. When two different cultures encounter, it is hard to avoid the conflicts.Ⅲ. Cultural Conflicts Between Chinese Immigrant Mothers and American-born Daughters All the mothers in The Joy Luck Club were born in late 1920s in old China and came to America in late 1940s while the daughters were born at the beginning of 1950s and grew up in America. Different times and places mean different languages, politics, economics, histories, cultures and values. These differences are objective and possible to cause conflicts, but they are not necessary to. However, if both of them hold prejudices toward each other’s cultures, that are ethnocentrism, conflicts are inescapable. Ethnocentrisms, also known as cultural centralism, is the belief that people think their culture, race and nation form the center of the world and are superior to others’, and their ways of doing things are both the best and only right ones. Ethnocentrism can cause many problems in intercultural relationships. According to the definition of culture people belonging to different cultures have different beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors. The immigrant mothers are mainly influenced by the Chinese culture of the first half of the 20th century while the Americanized daughters are influenced mainly by the American culture of the mid of the 20th century. Both of them believe only their own culture is normal, natural, and they ennoble their own while degrade others’. In this case, they both take their own culture as a center so that many conflicts take place between them.3.1 Mothers’ Cultural CentralismThe conflicts between the mothers and daughters can be regarded as that between control and anti-control. In this case, the mothers can’t shirk their responsibilities for making these conflicts. They always take Chinese culture as a center and refuse the daughters’.3.1.1 Two Influential Thoughts in Chinese History The mothers in The Joy Luck Club were born in China in the late years of the 1920s and grew up in old China. At that time the dominant thoughts that influenced Chinese people, especially uneducated people were the ideas of Confucianism and Buddhism.Confucianism is a school of thoughts that dominates the Chinese from Warring States in the 5th BC to the first half of 20th century, whose main creator is Confucius. It modifies the behaviors of people among different relationships; its main ideas can be generalized as “three obedience and four virtues of women, three bonds in human relations and the five constant virtues.” (Zhang Congyi, 2004:184)Confucianism specifies the powers and duties of different people and regulates different social functions of people, and it emphasizes the hierarchies, especially the hierarchy between the parent and children. This authority of the parents to children is called patriarchy. In family, parents are authorities, to whom children must show absolute respect and be obedient. Children are expected to obey the parents and rely upon their judgments, practicing filial piety, which is the basis of virtue, and the origin of the culture. In this culture a woman is trained to be obedient, a good daughter, a good wife and a good mother. They are told not to show their own desires; they can’t ask but can only listen. This means they can’t have demands from others but only do things for them and obey their orders, as can be revealed through one of the joy luck mothers An-mei Hsu. She saw her own mother’s suffering from the culture with her own eyes. An-mei’s father died when she was four. According to the culture if a woman’s husband dies she cannot marry again, and she must live as a widow to show the faith and obedience to the husband and the family until she dies. Wu Tsing was attracted by An-mei’s mother’s beauty and wanted to marry her. The second wife thought of a way to help Wu Tsing because she was tired of watching him wash his money in so many teahouses. She chatted with the mother and invited her to dinner and played Mah jong. After playing Mah jong she insisted the mother spend the night with her. At night Wu Tsing raped the mother and asked her to be his third concubine to bear him a son. The mother had no choice but to be Wu Tsing’s third concubine. When her family knew about it she was kicked by her brother and banned from the family house forever. At that time if a widow remarried, it was a great shame both to her mother’s and her husband’s family. The social moral demanded a woman to keep her woman fidelity to her husband even if her husband died. So it was a shame for a widow to remarry, or she would be despised, and all these public stresses made women have to be obedient. The immigrant mothers were brought up in such a culture, so they educated their children to be obedient since they were young. They regarded their children as subordinates and expect unconditional obedience from them.#p#分页标题#e#The mothers want to control the daughters while the daughters embrace the American ideal of individualism, separating themselves from the mother’s domination and seek their own independence, which is as Wang Huarong illustrates the relationship between an individual and his family as that of a dashing Arabian horse and the reins of a jockey, who firmly holds the horse back. “The mother-daughter relationship in The Joy Luck Club is just like that between the controlling jockey and a dashing horse .One wants to control and the other wants to break away. The conflicts between Suyuan and Jing-mei are caused mainly by the mother’s authority.” (Wang Huarong, 2004:78-79)The education of obedience also comes from Buddhism, which came into being in India and was brought to China about in the first century. In the following centuries Buddhism was flourished in China and became an essential part of cultures influencing on religion, philosophy, literature, of course, on daily life. The basic thinking of it is that life is full of pain, only one worships Buddha and thinks everything is nothing, can a man get away from the pain. And in order to be far away from the pain one must control his or her desire. It also claims that everything has its own cause and result. Man must enjoy his own result because it is he himself who causes the result, and life is cycling. If man does bad things he will sooner or later be punished, this life or the next one. This thought, in fact, encourages people to endure everything unfair and accept miserable reality. The Buddhism with the Confucianism together become the tools that control Chinese women, which make them obedient, swallow the pain they suffer and not to rebel since they came into being until the first half of the 20th century.In the story Magpies, An-mei told how she was taught to swallow one’s own tears, how to desire nothing and eat one’s own bitterness when she was a little girl. At the age of four, when her mother was leaving to marry Wu Tsing and wanted to leave her in her grandmother’s house, An-mei cried. Then her mother told her a story about a turtle: when she cried beside the pool of her yard, the turtle said, “I have eaten your misery. But I must warn you. If you cry, your life will always be sad.” (Tan, 1989:158) Then the turtle ate the tears, and every drop of the tears became an egg, every egg became a bird, a magpie. These magpies were very happy and sang all day long. Therefore, the mother told the daughter man shouldn’t cry, he or she should swallow the pain, if he or she didn’t swallow the pain, the pain would become other’s happiness.This viewpoint of life comes from Buddhism, which teaches people to accept the reality and not to rebel. The joy luck mothers use this kind of thoughts to educate the American daughters, who are sure to be defeated and conflicts are unavoidable.3.1.2 Mothers’ Ethnic ComplexEthnic complex usually exists among immigrants in intercultural communication, which means the immigrants can’t accept other race’s culture belonging to the country where the immigrants live properly. “They usually refuse the local culture, and think their home culture is the best one and fail to see that any culture has its own merits, so they are unable to be objective in dealing with things and easy to make conflicts in intercultural communication.” (Gudykunst, 1983:49) The mothers of The Joy Luck Club have very strong ethnic complex at most times in America, which prevents them from establishing harmonious relationship with their daughters. When Suyuan told the story of the joy luck club, she once mentioned the Mah jong table. She said, “My table was from my family and was of a very fragrant red wood, not you call rosewood, but hongmu, which is so fine there’s no English word for it….” (Tan, 1989:12) When the mother said this, she was full of pride with her culture and thought such a table couldn’t be found in America and there was no exact term for “hongmu”. In fact, there is a proper English word for “hongmu”, which is redwood.This shows the mother’s pride of her own nation’s Mah jong. She wanted to indicate that the Chinese Mah jong was interesting and the Chinese people were wise. In fact, every game needs players to be tricky. Chinese Mah jong and Jewish Mah jong are different, but the more different is the mothers’ attitudes towards Chinese people and Jewish people.Another joy luck club mother An-mei Hsu also refused the American son in law. When the daughter Rose’s boy friend Ted went to her house for the first time, the mother warned her that he was American as if the daughter had been blind. Ying-ying also said her foreign husband smelt like a foreigner, a lamb smell stink that could never be washed away.Of course, it is impossible to ask the joy club mothers to erase the elements of their original culture, but they should remember a Chinese saying: When you are in Rome, do as the Romans do. Since they have come to America, they should have adapted a kind of objective culture awareness to the new surroundings and the new culture. They should learn the American culture actively and accept it properly; this doesn’t mean they should get rid of their own culture. Learning to be open and flexible but not to be conservative can help them to adapt to the new culture very quickly so that they can avoid so many conflicts. The attitudes of refusing to learn and accept the American culture and taking their own culture as a center prevent the immigrant mothers from being harmonious with the Americanized daughters.3.2 Daughters’ Cultural CentralismAmerica is an immigrant country with a lot of immigrants from different places of the world. But at the very beginning it was mainly made up of European whites, therefore, the European whites’ culture became the dominant culture. This state hasn’t been changed much all these years. In America the whites, especially those with European heritage, control and dominate the major institutions and determine the flow and content of information. Therefore, the history, politics, economics and culture are all marked deeply with the characteristics of European whites, whose race’s superiority comes into being gradually. Therefore, conflicts between different races take place frequently. The conflicts between the mothers and daughters in The Joy Luck Club are usually caused by the opinion of the American cultural centralism. First, the daughters insist on their own American values, second, the government’s policies deepen the daughters’ prejudice to the mothers and made the daughters despise and refuse the mothers’ culture3.2.1. The Important Values in American SocietyThe most important value of Americans should be individualism first.Broadly speaking, individualism refers to the doctrine that each individual is unique, special, and completely different from all the other individuals. In the process of the forming of the United States this idea was valued very much. It was first spelled out by the seventeenth century English philosopher John Locke and immediately passed on to the colonies in America. (Su Lichang, 2006:69)When the colonies became independent it turned to be the basic human right. Many other values, such as rights, duties, originate from individualism. The daughters of the joy luck club were born in America, received education and grew up in the surroundings of its culture. They are sure to be influenced by the culture. They think individual is an independent objective; he or she can’t be aggressed and controlled, and they are only themselves, not others. Therefore, when Jing-mei’s mother Suyuan asked her to be a Chinese Shirley Temple she refused and when she was given some tests, she just became very tired of them and thought of ways to resist her mother so that her mother gave up the plan. When the mother made her play piano, severe conflicts took place. She thought she was only herself. She didn’t want to do things she didn’t like. For her the mother’s forcing her to do what she didn’t want was exploiting her basic human right. Therefore, she fought back to her mother strongly to protect herself.On the basis of individualism, equality, independence and freedom had formed before the American Independent War as shown in the Declaration of Independence:So equality is another important characteristic of American values, which is closely related to individualism and emphasized in everything from government to social relationships Americans believe that all people have rights to succeed in life; the state, through laws and educational opportunities, should ensure these rights. This value is prevalent in both primary and secondary social relationships: for instance, most of the primary social relationships within a family tend to advance equality rather than hierarchy. (Su Lichang, 2006:86)Parents and children are not equal, parents decide the children’s affairs, but on the contrary, children have no right to interfere parents’. Therefore, when Suyuan arranges everything for her daughter Jing-mei, she meets with a great deal of difficulties. Jing-mei receives the American education; she likes to treat others equally and chooses to be treated in the same manner when she lives in school or at home. But the mother from the hierarchical structure often finds it difficult to be equal with her children. She doesn’t think it is respectful to parents for children to pursue equal rights with parents. Independence and freedom are also the prominent characteristics of American values which American people have been valuing since they fought the Independent War. They fought the war for them to break away from the control of the colonies. In the process of the War of Independence they drafted the Declaration of Independence announcing their pursuit of the freedom and independence. This spirit goes from one generation to another until now. The above values mark the characteristics of American culture in which the daughters grew up. They are just contradictory to the immigrant mothers’ hierarchies and authorities. Even the daughters have grown old enough the mothers still want to control them. Therefore, the conflicts are unavoidable in their communication.#p#分页标题#e#3.2.2. Racial Prejudice and Government’s PoliciesAmerica is a country with a lot of races. The discrimination and prejudice, which are concerned with history, politics, economics and cultures, have existed since the forming of the country. Not only the black but also all the other no-whites including Chinese are discriminated.Chinese were the first Asian people who immigrated to America and also the first group excluded from voluntary immigration. Since the beginning of the gold rush in 1850, Chinese had started to come to America to work on gold mining and the first transcontinental railroad. Most of them landed and stayed in California, which therefore had the largest population of Chinese immigrants. As they did the most jobs of that area, anti-Chinese sentiment had been high from the beginning, so California governor referred to Chinese as an inferior race and announced that the settlement of the Chinese among the whites was clearly to be discouraged.As a result of the heated anti-Chinese sentiment and racial discrimination, a series of laws were passed against the interests of Chinese immigrants. In addition, there were laws specially aiming directly at the Chinese. One of them denied the Chinese entrance to public school or hospitals. In 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, which was not repealed until the middle of World War II when China and the United States signed a treaty as allies in 1943. These political policies have been influencing the Chinese immigrants and their children all these years. Even the joy luck club daughters are still misled by these negative distorted stereotypes, therefore, they can’t judge Chinese including their mothers properly and despise them from the point of view of Americans. In 1943, Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed, but the discrimination to the Chinese immigrants didn’t stop.These political discrimination and the stereotypes of Chinese cause great negative effects on the Chinese immigrants in their social life even on their children, and made the Americanized daughters have repelling ideas on their parents.The Americanized joy club daughters have double cultural identities. Compared with the mothers they are the delegates of American culture, and compared with Americans they are the delegates of Chinese culture, but because they were born and grow up in America they are mainly influenced by American culture. Race prejudice, stereotypes, together with government’s policies are hurting the Chinese immigrants and also influencing their children. These reasons make the Americanized daughters refuse and despise Chinese culture but appreciate American one. When Jing-mei recalled her childhood, she thought one of the Mah jong gatherings in Auntie An-mei’s house:When Jing-mei was a sophomore at Galileo High in San Francisco, her mother told her that once she was born Chinese she couldn’t help but feel and think like Chinese. As she heard this, she saw herself transforming like a werewolf, a mutant tag of DNA suddenly triggered, replicating itself insidiously into a syndrome, a cluster of telltale Chinese behaviors, all those things her mother did to embarrass her: haggling with store owners, pecking her mouth with a toothpick in public, being color- blind to the fact that lemon yellow and pale pink were not good combinations for winter clothes. She thought it was a shame to be a Chinese and felt what her mother did ridiculous and embarrassing. (Tan, 1989:72)Ethnocentrism, stereotypes, and prejudice as well influence the Americanized daughters’ opinions on their mothers and make them despise the mothers and refuse to accept Chinese culture. Therefore, the joy luck mothers live very hard lives in America. These are also the exact reasons causing conflicts between them.Ⅳ. Cultural Fusion in Harmonious WorldChina grows stronger, with people having greater exposure to alien cultures. It is necessary to maintain the uniqueness of Chinese culture, as a popular saying goes "what's national is just what belongs to the world." But it is hard to keep our national tradition unchanged in an ever-changing world.4.1 Reconstruction of Mother-daughter’s Relationship After the quarrelling and misunderstandings, the mothers and daughters finally reconcile. The daughters finally see that they have to learn about mothers' life in order to understand their own history and personality. The daughters' battles for independence from powerful mothers are fierce, but eventually, reconciliation is reached. Mothers left their tragic lives in China and had come to America to give their daughters a better life, a life of greater choice. Mothers' expectations are great but daughters do not take advantage of the choices available to them. Manifested in mothers' constantly demanding hard work for their daughters, this kind of mentality is at first too complicated for the American born daughters to understand.As the mothers grow old and weak, their daughters become aware of their mothers' vulnerability and weakness and come to realize that their mothers have always had the daughters' own interests at heart. Waverly finally understands that:I saw what I had been fighting for: it was for me, a scared child, who had run away a long time ago to what I had imagined was a safer place. And hiding in this place, behind my invisible barriers, I knew what lay on the other side: her side attacks, her secret weapons, and her uncanny ability to find my weakest spots. But in the brief instant that I had peered over the barriers I could finally see what was really there: an old woman, a work for her armor, a knitting needle for her sword, getting a little crabby as she waited patiently for her daughter to invite her in. Once the daughter notices her mother's good intentions hidden behind their stern face and harsh words, then all danger is past and mother may be invite in the daughter's life. The three of us, leaving our differences behind, stepping on the plane together, sitting side by side lifting off, moving West to reach the East. (Tan, 1989:184)In the novel, other daughters also experience a kind of subtler or less intensive moment of realization after their own sufferings in life. They finally come to realize the value and reason of their mothers' mentality and they begin to hear the rich meanings in their mothers' stories. For immigrants and their families, there are two ways for them.The very condition itself carries both negative and positive charges. On one hand, being between worlds can be interpreted to mean occupying the space or gulf between two banks; one is thus in a state of suspension, accepted by neither side and therefore truly belonging nowhere… on the other hand, viewed from a different perspective, being between worlds may be considered as having footholds on both banks and therefore belonging to two worlds at once. One does not have less; one has more…the person between worlds is in the indispensable position of being a bridge. (关世杰, 1995:14)In this novel, American daughters are facing the problem of “choosing between the worlds”. Compared with Chinese mothers, the younger generations live in the dilemma. They are often split by two different cultures, producing a “feeling of being between worlds, totally at home nowhere.” Perhaps, then, there is no such thing as a pure state of being Chinese, a pure state of being American. Outsiders should not be seen as a split between Chinese and American culture. They should take two cultures as complimentary forces, which may help these women close the generational gap and the different worlds. So finally Americanized daughters come to appreciate their mothers' mentality. Instead of dangling as a double-alienated outsider, they succeed in bridging the two cultures in the end. One mother, Ying-ying, for example, has found the balance she has sought: “she and I have shared the same body. There is a part of her mind that is part of mine.” Jing-mei's returning to China at the end of the novel exemplifies the feeling:If it is true that the more people differ the harder it is for them to understand each other, it is equally true that the more they differ the more they have to teach and learn from each other. In this novel, mother-daughter pairs experience the misunderstandings stem from cultural differences. However, by eventually creating a bridge between mothers and daughters, China and America, daughters and mothers ultimately reconcile some of these cultural differences. For them, the contrasts between them bring them particular pain as well as particularichness, providing hope for those who lived between worlds as outsiders. (Tan, 1989:208) 4.2 Significance of Cultural FusionChinese people should get a thorough understanding of Chinese culture so that Chinese culture could withstand the wear and tear of time and changes. Worldwide co-operations aiming to achieve mutual benefits are increasing every day. Take recent events for example, Boao forum for Asia 2006 was held in Hanna, China. President Hu Jintao visited USA and made many speeches, which demonstrated Chinese usual policy of building a harmonious world. As the increasingly frequent interaction between nations, cultural conflicts have never been given so much attention to as today. Some cultural critics like Huntington even claim that the biggest problem is the clash of civilizations. So having a good command of other culture and the fusion of different cultures is also a prerequisite for intercultural communication.#p#分页标题#e#Ⅴ. The Proper Attitude Toward Different CulturesThe author of this novel is a Chinese-American. She succeeds in opening the readers' eyes to the significance of culture, race, and gender in shaping the context in which the mother-daughter relationship occurs and comes into full play. Her unique double cultural backgrounds qualify her to insight into the deep reasons of the conflicts happening between two cultures. By contrastively analyzing the conflicts between these two cultures, readers may have access to many different cultural aspects of America and also gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture. So it not only enlarges the readers’ own way of experiencing the world but also enables all the people to maintain constructive relationships with American society that operates according to a different logic from others. Through the analysis, it can be found that the exact cause of mother-daughter’s conflicts is both the mother and daughter’s cultural centralism. Only when people from different cultures are ready to understand and respect the other’s culture and communicate well can they establish harmonious relationship. It not only reflects the conflicts, communication and integration of Chinese and American cultures, but also foretells the attitudes that different nations, races and cultures should adopt in the age of globalization, which emphasizes understanding, communication and trust.While focusing on exploring mother-daughter relationship, the writer hopes that in the age of globalization, the old China and the young America can eventually reach mutual understanding, communication, trust and good relations in spite of the differences in culture, history and political system. This process enhances the intercultural communication competence, as a global villager, making Chinese people more qualified for dealing with foreigners.Bibliography Gudykunst, W.B. Intercultural Communication Theory: Current Perspectives. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983. Selena, Ward. Today’s Most Popular Study Guides: The Joy Luck Club. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Translation and Publishing Co, 2003. Su Lichang. American Society and Culture. Tianjin: University of Nankai Press, 2006. Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons Inc, 1989. Wang Huarong. The Bridge of Cultural Understanding in The Joy Luck Club. Honghe: Honghe University, 2004. Yu Weihua. Readings in Intercultural Studies. Wuhan: University of Wuhan Press, 2006. Zhang Congyi. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Cultures. Hunan: Hunan People's Publishing House, 2004. 关世杰. 《跨文化交流学—提高涉外交流努力的学问》. 北京： 北京出版社, 1995. 刘晓红. 《隔膜•冲突•融合—<喜福会>的跨文化审视》. 上海：世界国际出版社, 1998.