在多数情况下，电子市场一直被理解为在线市场。这个市场聚集了许多公司，"B2B电子交易所和电子市场就是那些公司把众多有不同需求的买家（比如原材料，办公用品等）和卖家通过在线网络连通到一起，使得他们能够进行实时的交易。尽管他们也提供了一些其他的有额外附加值的服务，例如：定制产品设计和提供报价，供应商管理（比如建议邀请或报价邀请管理，供应商资格预审和投标），订单处理（准时交货订单，跟单），以及协同计划（比如，预测供应商管理库存，供应计划）（巴特查里亚，2002）。”受到虚拟网络的影响，以及操作成本（如，零库存）和易贝购物网在消费者中的巨大成功的激励，这些网络企业曾决定改革企业间相互影响的方式，并和其他企业在关键的业务流程方面进行沟通。对于买家而言，使用电子市场的优势包括：B2B电子市场的演变早期的B2B电子市场开始于1996年。从那以后，他们进行了如下演变：E-marketplaces have, on quite a few occasions, been described as online bazaars. They consist of many companies g- athering together "B2B Exchanges and e-Marketplaces are firms that link multiple buyers (of raw materials, office supplies, etc.) to sellers via an online network and allow them to conduct transactions in real- time ,though they can also help perform (but rarely used in) other value-added services such as customized product design and quoting, vendor management (e.g., RFP/RFQ management, vendor prequalification, bidding), order processing (JIT ordering, order tracking), and collaborative planning (e.g., forecasting, VMI, supply planning) (Bhattacherjee, 2002).""Encouraged by the purported network effect, low operational costs (e.g., zero inventory), and tremendous success of eBay in the consumer sector, these Internet firms once promised to revolutionize the way firms interact and transact with other firms in performing critical business processes.For buyers, the advantages of using e-marketplaces include:Evolution of B2B E-MarketplacesThe earliest B2B marketplaces started about the year 1996.Since then, they have evolved as follows:B2B Brochure-ware (pre-1996)Online catalogs with some search capabilities but no commerce.B2B Catalogs (1997)This is the one-too-many model that creates value via aggregation, i.e., aggregating buyers and giving them a choice of suppliers and facilitating commerce. Examples: Grainger.B2B Auctions (1998)One-to-many model that creates value via market-making (matching buyers to sellers), plus aids in the price discovery process.B2B Exchanges (1999-2000)This is the Many-to-many model that creates value via market-making, price-discovery, and/or value-added services such as settlement and clearing, escrow, shipping, etc.Global Trading Web (2002-)B2B trading exchanges that will link multiple e-marketplaces across international boundaries governing multi-faceted, complex business processes such as dynamic configuration of the entire supply chain (e-design + e-procurement + e-sourcing), or procuring from global suppliers (e-procurement + financial exchange + currency exchanges), or futures exchanges, barters, or commodity swaps.However, the global trading web is more of an envisioned future than reality at this time (Bhattacherjee, 2002)."参与市场的重要益处——The key benefits of participating in an exchange or marketplace"For buyers, the advantages of using e-marketplaces include:Lower prices on goods procured (about 5-20% lower compared to goods purchased offline).Lower transaction costs (costs of paper-based purchase order processing are typically $50-80).Lower procurement cycle time and costs (real-time order processing).Reduced inventory (e.g., just-in-time).Improve vendor identification and management (e.g., RFQ, bidding).Implement new processes such as JIT or strategic sourcing.Sellers want to use e-marketplaces because:Internet opened up a new sales channel.Reach new potential buyers.Lower transaction costs (e.g., data re-keying).Less errors (automated order entry, invoicing, receivables; hence fewer returns).Faster payment clearing.Optimized inventory (based on customer demand).Implement new processes such as contract buying” (Galaviz, 2002). Primary hindrances"The problem with B2B exchanges is that they are trying to replace point-to-point business relationships instead of automating them. The B2B concept needs to applied at the partner level to be successful since business to business relationships are generally built on that model (contracted pricing, contracted performance, and sustainable and predictable effectiveness) (Galaviz, 2002).""These e-marketplaces failed to achieve a critical mass (minimum number of buyers and sellers), that can attract other buyers and sellers and self-sustain growth (just like a "critical mass" of fissile material is required to self-sustain a nuclear reaction – from Physics).Setting up an exchange did not automatically motivate buyers and sellers to join the network; most participants had no overt incentive to join the marketplace.Huge resistance to change particularly among old economy industries such as steel, paper, and plastics.最好的实践可以确保成功—— Best practices that will ensure success"e-business systems implement the Web channel for an organization's marketing and business transaction processes. They must integrate with the business systems that implement a company's market, sales, and service business processes for its other channels. These business systems provide the back-office support for these online customer touch-points. It's critical that business systems present a single, unified view of customer, product, and order information. As a result, it's critical that Web applications leverage and integrate existing systems for marketing, customer management, inventory, and order management. Illustration 3 shows, for each business process of an e-business system, the back-office systems with which it might integrate (Kramer, 2000)."