澳大利亚essay指导-澳大利亚农产品质量安全管理与认证-Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products management and authentication
Australia is a farm exporter, agricultural production developed, in the quality and safety of agricultural products management experience there has been some success. Study the agricultural policy, standard authentication system of agricultural products, the successful practice in our country to do the quality and safety of agricultural products management and the authentication has important reference and the significance.
A, Australia agriculture and agricultural policies
The Australian federal with a total population of 20.5186 million, covers an area of 7.692 million km2, is the world’s second dry continent. The national economy by forestry and fisheries mainly, service industry, manufacturing (including food processing 30%) and other industry structure, agricultural output value of about $28 billion, accounting for the entire country around 3% of GDP, plus the processing industry of agricultural products accounted for about 20%.
(a) the Australian farming in Australia, the prairie vast territory plains.it, has the island nation natural geographical advantage and government strict animal and plant quarantine system, for many years no animal source disease problems. Perfect agricultural management system, advanced technical measures, leaving Australia agriculture and animal products processing industry developed, known as "ride in the back of the sheep state". Agricultural production intensive and higher mechanization degree, and agricultural products export to give priority to, export the annual production value amount to 8 billion-9 billion the Australian dollar. Agricultural output value of the main industry is beef, wheat, dairy and wool, beef exports and wool yield ranked first in the world.
The Australian government is divided into the federal government and the states two levels, the "constitution" to clearly define the division of their respective duties. Specific to agriculture is the management system, the federal government is mainly responsible for establishing agriculture tax, trade, land and forestry of natural resources management, agriculture and food inspection and quarantine policy, as well as the basic standard of produce quality safety, technical regulations and normative policy, law; Agricultural and food safety daily supervision by the state level specific affairs is responsible.
The Australian government’s investment in agriculture is mainly used in support of new technology application and improve the competitiveness of the industry. Mainly has three aspects: one is the agriculture infrastructure investment. New south wales foundation in recent years industry (equivalent to ministry of agriculture) devotes a lot of money for the farm adopted implementation of GPS (global positioning system) of farmland cultivation, irrigation management system. Objective to save the human cost of agricultural production, improve agricultural production efficiency- 2 it is agriculture science and technology research and development spending. Australian agricultural research mainly is to have the scientific research institutions to raise the farmer, the government is also provide supporting capital waiting for the forehead, so that the application technology research and actual production "seamless sex docking". Three is agricultural emergency fund. Since 2003 is suffering from a severe drought for Australia, the government set up emergency funds, the farmer to provide aid and has accumulated drought has reached $2.3 billion aid investment.
(2) agricultural policies to promote the principles of the sustainable development of agriculture, the Australian government in the adjustment of agricultural policies formulated and when we consider the effect of five factors: (1) drought, the government’s annual budget a lot of aid money used to help farmers through the droughts in recent years: (2) trade, the key is in Japan, Europe, the United States, China, and other agricultural products export market, tried to expand export trade; (3) natural resource management, in order to deal with Australia soil salinization of desertification and growing problem; (4) water management, consider mainly collection and recycling water rain water such as engineering; (5) the original vegetation management, to slow down the speed of the species extinction, hold biodiversity.
(3) agriculture with the problems at present, Australia agriculture with the problems are: (1) drought in Australia to agricultural production of serious threat; (2) the soil salinization in surface and groundwater increased salt, to rural areas of the adverse impact; (3) with the global the rise in oil prices, higher fuel costs to high mechanization of Australian agriculture of the impact of; (4) economic globalization and trade technical barriers to Australia the challenge of traditional advantage industry; (5) Australia’s high Labour costs, and many developing countries lack of advantages; (6) the Australian government without direct subsidies agriculture, farmers to resist the ability of the risk is limited; (7) agriculture employs an aging population, the farmer offspring armament of line, faulting of agricultural labor force.
Second, Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products management
Australia as an important agricultural exporters, in the quality and safety of agricultural products management institutions, policies and regulations, and standard testing, the authentication management has a perfect system.
(a) organization and function of Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products management department, due to the particularity of the state administrative management system, mainly has the federal government and state government two levels.
1. The federal government level, the produce quality safety management has two department. One is the federal Agriculture and Forestry Fisheries (Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, AFFA), manager Australia Agriculture, Forestry, fishery products production, processing, and distribution, the markets, the input products using policies and regulations and promote implementation, responsible for the administration of the import and export of agricultural products; 2 it is Australia Inspection and quarantine (Australian Ouarantine and Inspection Service, AQIS), belongs to the federal agriculture and forestry of fisheries, specialized responsible for the import and export of agricultural products Inspection and quarantine policy and technical measures of supervise the implementation.
2. State government level (in new south wales, for example), mainly have three departments. One is the basic Industry (Department of Primary Industry, NSW), in the state is responsible for agriculture and fisheries, mining and other basic Industry production guidance, trade, security, scientific research, etc, the existing personnel 3 584 people. Another two agronomy courtyard. 2 it is Food Safety agency (NSW, Food Safety Authority), was established in April 2004, it is the first responsible for agricultural products from Australia to harvest the whole consumer hand the supervision of Food Safety agency, affiliated to the ministry of foundation, but relatively independent work. With meat, milk, seafood, shellfish four experts committee. Global office personnel 117. Three is the Department of Health (Department of Health and Ageing), appear when food safety accidents, for example, involved epidemiology investigation, by the Health Department.
(2) the policy and regulations Australia security policies and technical regulations of agricultural products by "Australia New Zealand Food regulations minister committee" (Australia New Zealand Food Regulation Ministers’ Council) make. The committee by Australia, new federal and state governments of the two countries in agriculture and health minister composition. The current technical regulations have Australia New Zealand Food standard codex (Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code), "Food regulations 2005" (Food Regulation 2005). The Australian federal law mainly is to develop with the domestic actual implementation of laws and setting up the punishment of requirements, specific implementation by the state is responsible for, including illegal food producers to take warning, reorganization, the fines, judicial treatment, etc.
(3) Australian standard authentication system is mainly include standard detection system, testing system and the authentication system.
1. The standard system: the Australian standard of produce quality safety unity by "Australia Food Standards committee" (Food Standards of Australian and New Zealand, hereinafter referred to as FSANZ) organizations to develop. FSANZ mainly according to the CAC standard, combined with Australia, New Zealand characteristics, the two countries make suitable food safety standards, standards involve primary agricultural products, processing, packing and sales all the food supply chain. No organization or individual may propose to update, revised standard advice, after several rounds after examination, and finally by Australia food regulations issued by the minister commission for approval. Australia’s standard are divided into two classes of mandatory and not mandatory. Pesticide residues and veterinary drug residue, pathogenic bacteria and other security indexes of make by the government, for mandatory standards; About color, aroma, taste and quality index by industry association set, are not mandatory standards.
2. Testing system: Australia have relatively complete the quality and safety of agricultural products detection and monitoring system, alarm system and imported agriculture confirmed (registered) system. 澳大利亚essay指导In the security control in the whole course quality control and animal diseases control, agriculture veterinary drug residue control, environmental and pollutants control, pathogenic microorganisms and import food access control management and control, control and management system standardized operation, effective, is deep related major trading nations (region) approved.#p#分页标题#e#
3. The authentication system: Australia authentication system of agricultural products various forms, pay attention to their own national characteristics, have very distinct features. All the authentication are calculated by the industry, the market, consumer demand Settings, outstanding professional. A lot of the authentication model and food safety project consists of industry organization (association) or large group (company) launch. The authentication work mostly not the certificate, only to be filling, corresponding identification marks. All the authentication are much attention to production process control evaluation and confirmation. Nowadays in agricultural products by the official approval and producers and business operators and consumers of authentication model have highly successful:
(1) fresh produce rest assured the authentication (Freshcare), with the HACCP does not apply to the planting industry producers, and not easy operation EurepGAP, Australia since 2000, will HACCP and combination of GAP, according to the Australian agricultural production practice, founded the Freshcare the authentication, this is a simplified procedure, easy operation, the characteristics of the planting industry production for Australia authentication model. The present Australia, more than 4000 are planting industry Freshcare passed authentication, and is home to more than 1200 a year of population growth. Join Freshcare system farmer, the young to have the guarantee product sales, but need to receive each year pesticides, microorganism review.
(2) food grade that, the Australian bureau of wheat (AWB) and Australia grain association (GrainCorp) on wheat and other major food crops products, according to its size, moisture, nutrients and index is different, have the strict grading standard of classification. Australia’s wheat grain products trading activities should be according to the classification and grading standard for grading sales, realize high quality low.
(3) the quality guarantee (QA), is Australia in the early 1990 s, according to ISO 9000 standard established a set of suitable for agricultural production and quality guarantee system. Mode is largely a "production quality guarantee statement system", that is, whether the statement using illicit drug producers, defect is difficult to trace, but in the quality and safety of change people production concept and whole management idea made a great success. There are 43% of Australia agricultural producers used the QA system and production quality management mode, 17% of the NiuChang used one of the Cattlecare mode, 2% of the lamb is one of the games Flockcare mode.
(4) animal tracing System Identification (National Livestock Identification System, NLIS), is Australia’s federal government in recent years the development of compulsory animal Identification traceability information collection System, has a National database, can be used for animals from birth to slaughtering and processing, and marketing the tracing, be the states and the farmer widely adopted.
(5) AUS-MEAT sign, is Australia MEAT quality specification administration (AUS-MEAT) made responsible for MEAT and livestock unified terms, and supervise the quality assurance plan and product specifications of a push measures. Every accords with specified standard production slaughtering tenants can nominal for AUS-MEAT recognized the slaughterhouse, recognized merchants must make proper use of related terms, implement quality assurance plan, abide by the TuZaiYe business rules, AUS-MEAT hire check commissioner responsible for inspecting and supervising the implementation of merchants and honesty self-discipline condition.
(6) Meat Standards Australia (MSA), is a beef and mutton quality standard of the project by Australia Meat Livestock and poultry association (Meat and Livestock Australia, MLA) push. Meet the standard prescribed by qualified, issue certificates and allow to use the logo. The certification products must be labeled with security level and recommend of cooking.
(4) Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products of a successful practice management is actively promote farm self-discipline dominated production management mode. Australia is scarcely populated to farm of production is given priority to, has about 120000 farms. The farm intensive and higher mechanization degree, the government and all kinds of industry association to farmers through unified organization training, promote the unified management of quality and safety of agricultural products. The farmer to the quality of our products is very concerned about the, participate in the quality and safety of agricultural products of project high enthusiasm. A farm if the product appeared quality problem, will be social and peer hated. Two is relying on industry association provide production technology services. The Australian government intervention in agriculture is less, mainly rely on rely on all kinds of industry association or large enterprise in the basis of cooperation with the government of the development of the industry, for producers provide raw materials, training, information, the market and other services to meet the needs of the producers. Such as founded in 1935, "the Australian Fruit and Vegetable association" (Fruit and Vegetable Industries limited, FVI), through the actively promote Freshtest plan, unified organization member to designated lab to test, they will plant operators testing costs each year from the past a $6000 down to the current $165 annually for all member detect cost saving tens of millions of the Australian dollar. At the same time association will also all test results the establishment of database, provide the government or relevant organization and realizing agricultural product traceability of management. FVI through the Freshcare project, realize the superior price of agricultural products, well the wholesalers, retailers and planting the interests of the consumer connection. Three major export is export-oriented agricultural. Australia is a farm exporter, the production of agricultural products for export 60%, belong to the typical export-oriented agricultural, the government has a special trade promotion agencies, to help develop the agricultural product export market. If the federal government subsidiary body Austrade, is specialized in the import and export of Australia promote work; "Australia export financial insurance company" (EFIC), special is responsible for export commodities provide overseas financial and insurance service.
(5) Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products of management characteristics (1) classification management, the responsibility is clear. One is reflected in the federal government and the states between government, both the quality and safety of agricultural products to a clear division of management, the federal is responsible for formulating policies, and the specific regulations and implementation by the state to complete, mutual overlapping functions is less; 2 it is reflected in the government and industry association, and between the government work focus in the agricultural products "safe" management, developing criteria for more mandatory standards. Industry association mainly responsible for agricultural products "quality" in the management, the set standards and specifications for not mandatory. (2) enterprise control, industrial self-discipline. 20 years ago Australia the Quality and safety of agricultural products is mainly depend on the government push also and supervise, producers more is the Quality Control (Quality Control, QC) system, passive accept supervision, the result is the increased cost of management, but not value added, regulatory effect is not ideal. The past 10 years, with the agricultural products supply chain with seamless, producers began to adopt more quality Assurance (Ouality Assurance, QA) way, thus make the quality and safety of agricultural products management more active. Government intervention in the quality safety problems of agricultural products is less and less, and most adopting effective market regulation means, let one’s own understanding of industry should be limited to production, strict self-discipline, and decrease the burden of government, strengthen the industry control the pertinence and effectiveness. (3) is the ultimate goal in consumer demand, in order to improve the competition of market foothold. The quality safety problems of agricultural products range from "Paddock to Plate (farm to eat dish)" the whole process of the whole supply chain. In earlier times the Australian farmers selling a product that just everything is all right, every link in the supply chain individual little concern for the quality requirements of the other links, which affect the whole industry, the enterprise and the competitiveness of their products. The situation is different, the whole agricultural production and supply chain has already formed the common understanding in all the practitioners, we think competition from the chains, chains for common interests should add cooperation, appear the quality safety problems of agricultural products can be traced back to the production process, in order to improve the whole industry credit, reduce safety accident risk and loss. At the same time, people also understanding to the quality of the agricultural products, the main products of the characteristics of the extent of the consumption demand to meet. Final consumers on the product quality to have the right to speak, producers and suppliers should consider terminal customer satisfaction. (4) inside and outside consistent standards. Australia to adapt to the needs of the export of agricultural products, domestic products and export products will be the standard authentication system, the reasonable effective docking. General domestic product standards simplified to export demand, product once obtain export approval, can also get the domestic recognized, and realize the market access. Avoid the repeated the authentication, greatly enhancing the management efficiency, reducing production cost of transaction, reflect the WTO trade non-discrimination principle.#p#分页标题#e#
Three, to our country the quality and safety of agricultural products management and authentication of the enlightenment
Although China and Australia’s national conditions, agricultural policies and the quality and safety of agricultural products management and the authentication in different ways, but Australia to produce quality safety management and authentication of the idea, promote the level of quality and safety of agricultural products and has experience, is worth us and learn from it.
(a) comply with international general rule, adjust measures to local conditions for the quality and safety of agricultural products for their management and technology policy, is the key to control the quality and safety of agricultural products in Australia standard system, agricultural products and system of the agricultural product inspection and quarantine authentication system of successful experience, especially for agricultural exports and domestic agricultural products according to actual production and consumption demand is different, make different production management mode of practices for our future creative to launch not only conforms to the international prevailing rules and suitable for China’s national conditions of produce quality safety management and the authentication model provides the experience for reference. In the process of agricultural production quality safety guarantee mode with the country to adapt to the development stage, according to China’s current production, and the actual consumption and supply and demand, and suitable for the establishment and implementation of the quality and safety of agricultural products in accordance with China’s development level and the phase of the quality and safety of agricultural products management and the authentication model, such as insist pollution-free agricultural products, green food and organic agricultural products "trinity, the whole advancement, classification management, scale development" mode and path.
(2) the source control, process control, the entire journey service agricultural producers are key management quality and safety of agricultural products in Australia the quality and safety of agricultural products security system, and practices is the federal government and the state department of agriculture department of agriculture classification management, responsibility specific working mode. The government department is mainly responsible for the safety of agricultural products, agricultural products quality specification management control, mainly through the farm self-discipline realized. By farmers, government officials, scientific research personnel and consumers, and other aspects of the staff in order to ensure the industry association of agricultural products to the coordination whole industry chain and ensure the link their own interests has played an important role, effectively realized the agricultural products from "farmland to table" in the whole process of the control.
(3) to meet consumer demand, reduce the production costs, improve the production efficiency is the quality and safety of agricultural products management purposes Australia the federal government and 澳大利亚essay指导the state department of agriculture and all kinds of industry association, through to the farmer provide different policy capital, education training services, in order to improve agricultural producers production technology level and the management ability, and meet the requirement of process control and consumption market demand. By providing technology, information service, to reduce the production cost, improve the production efficiency and achieve the quality and safety of agricultural products the final purpose of management, increase agricultural benefits and the market competitive power, this is worth learning and reference.