- November 12, 2019
议论文写作中经常要表达这样的意思：A问题是由某几个因素引起的，写成英文是：XX factors lead to / result in A，例如：
Three factors lead to / result in the increase in unemployment rate in this country. First…Second…
The exponential growth in the power of silicon chips, digital sensors and high-bandwidth communications improves robots just as it improves all sorts of other products. And, as our special report this week explains, three other factors areat play.
上面选段中play是熟词生义，它的意思是“影响，作用”(the effect or influence of something)，at play是一个在外刊中很常见的词组，three other factors are at play 即“有另外三个因素在起作用”。
写作中可以用 Two/Three/Several factors are at play in… / Two/Three/Several factors are at play when it comes to… 来说明某问题由某几个因素引起，例如：
Several factors areat playwhen it comes to teenage smoking. First, many young people are susceptible to peer pressure. They may pick up smoking to be better liked by more popular peers, or out of fear of losing friends who have already taken up the habit. Second, teenagers are at an impressionable age where they can be easily influenced by adults. Some of them start smoking by imitating adult figures or role models, such as their parents, older siblings, and even celebrities.
此外，关于play还有另外一个表达：bring/put something into play，它的意思是“使某事发挥作用”。例如：
All the resources and staff available werebrought into playto cope with the crisis.
Another firm, MoneyGram of America, accepted an offer of $1.2bn from Ant Financial, but in January the sale was blockedon national-security groundsby America’s watchdog, the Committee on Foreign Investment in the US.
上面这段文字的背景是美国监管部门出于国家安全的考虑，禁止了蚂蚁金服对速汇金的收购。其中on…grounds / on grounds of是一个常见的表示原因的用法，它的意思是“以……为由，基于……的原因”。
While some people support genetically modified food, others oppose this technologyon health grounds. They argue that GM crops may produce harmful substances and thus have a negative impact on human health.
The biggest winners all round are likely to be consumers, though witha number of caveats. Four stand out: market concentration, security, privacy and inequality.
这里caveat是一个比较正式的词，它的意思是“警告，提醒，告诫”(a warning that something may not be completely true, effective etc)：
Although online shopping can offer some benefits to young people, there are alsoa number of caveatsthat they should bear in mind. First, the convenience of e-commerce may encourage frivolous spending by inducing youngsters to buy more than they need. Second, there is a chance that young people who are already introverted may become ever more alienated from the outside world, as they can buy almost everything they want in the comfort of their home.
要表达“A与B截然相反”，一般可以说：A is the opposite of B，除了这个说法之外，还可以说：
Some airports are known for beingthe antithesis of elegance.
其中be the antithesis of是一个固定搭配，含义是“与……截然相反”，它要比the opposite of something更为正式，语气也更重。
(1) Staying up late isthe antithesis ofhealthy living.
(2) Deforestation isthe antithesis ofenvironmental protection.
此外，与“对立，相反”有关的还有一个词组at the opposite end of the scale/spectrum
India is a land of large numbers: a place of over a billion people, a million mutinies and a thousand different tongues. Butit is not too much of a stretch to say thatsince independence in 1947 there have only been two kinds of Indian economy.
其中stretch是熟词生义，它来自stretch the truth这一用法，在这里是指“夸大事实，言过其实”，It is not too much of a stretch to say that… 即“说……并不过分，说……并不言过其实”。
Taobao, a Chinese e-commerce giant, was founded by Jack Ma and his team in the early 2000s, andit is not too much of a stretch to say thatTaobao has changed China profoundly since its foundation.
本文系授权发布，By 魏剑峰，From 英文悦读，微信号：read_the_economist，未经许可不得转载，北美ezAce诚意推荐。
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