辅导案例-ECO 359

  • July 24, 2020

1 ECO 359 – Reading and Writing in Economics Summer 2020 Session II – July 6 to August 15, 2020 Núria Quella Isla1 Last updated July 2, 2020 ***** GUIDELINES FOR YOUR FIRST DRAFT Your First Draft is the second deliverable you will submit. Please, note the due date and hour (always Eastern Time or New York time) and mark it in your calendar. Make also a note of the documents you must upload for your submission to be complete, and of the target length of each document. After your First Draft has been accepted and you have received my feedback, you will proceed on to write the Final Version of your paper. Week Due Date Deliverable Target Length 4 Sunday, July 26 by 11:59pm Two documents: 1. First Draft 2. Progress Report First Draft: At least five pages, plus one page at most for list of References, plus an Appendix for visual objects. Progress Report: At most one page plus copy of my feedback to your Proposal. Outline: The purpose of this document is to help you present the results of your self-directed learning in a Draft format. In your Proposal, you presented the initial concept and tentative design of your study. Now you must proceed on to a more formal and demanding kind of writing. In this phase you need to be more aware of the conventions of economic writing, of its methods for analysis and argument. Aim for clear and precise communication (take your favorite textbook as an example of what clear and precise reads like). Be persuasive and always keep in mind that your audience is composed of your economics faculty and your peers, NOT the general public. This will require you to think hard before you write. 1 Do not share or reproduce this document without my permission. 2 Learning Objectives: This writing assignment will serve to develop your skills of research and inquiry. These skills will include information literacy, analysis, and communication. They may also include hypothesis design and formation, and interpretation of data. More specifically, after completion of your First Draft, you should be able to: 1. Describe a subject from an economics perspective. 2. Select information, sources, and data relevant to a subject. 3. Summarize information and data in an organized and structured manner. 4. Explain the fundamentals of a subject in a clear, direct, and precise language. 5. Use and apply the concepts, models, and terminology of microeconomics, macroeconomics, econometrics, and other economics courses you have taken. 6. Analyze a subject, its parts, and related literature. 7. Relate a subject to its broader context. 8. Contrast ideas, methodologies, and conclusions about a subject and critique them. 9. Illustrate and support your arguments with data-driven evidence from reliable sources. Purpose of a Draft: Drafting is the second step in your writing process. The purpose of your Draft is to explore further and expand upon the ideas and methodology presented in your Proposal. In your Draft, you will clarify and modify your initial ideas, develop a more cohesive text, and organize your content in a way that will allow your audience (and yourself) to better understand what you are trying to say, its purpose and relevance. How to Proceed (and it is not sequentially): Whichever subject and form you have chosen for your paper, start by adapting your Draft to the typical structure of an economics paper, then tailor it to suit your particular subject and type of paper. The typical format of an economics research paper will usually contain the elements that appear in the Table below, in this same order:2 I recommend you start by creating a document with all the sections in the Table below. Then leave blank the sections you are not working on yet. Keep in mind the length of each section is a suggestion and it is meant to help you give an initial structure to your paper at the Draft 2 All economic writing contains pretty much the same elements. Later on, in your professional life, you may want to use this same structure BUT adapt section names. E.g. you may have an ‘Executive Summary’ instead of an ‘Abstract.’ 3 stage. The actual length of each section at the Final Version stage may not be exactly what is suggested in the Table below… but it should not be too far from it either. Component or Section Suggested length Title & Subtitle 6 – 15 words Abstract 200 words at most As of now, do NOT attempt to write an Abstract: leave this section blank. Key Words 3 – 6 keywords Introduction In its final version, it must include these elements: purpose of research, motivation, general background, original contribution, methodology, and brief summary of your results or findings, and conclusions. About 15% of total length of paper3 Write the final version of this section ONLY AFTER you have written the Literature Review and/or Background Review, have results or findings, and conclusions to include. Literature Review and/or Background Review Must contain background of your subject, conceptual development or conceptual framework. About 40% of total length of paper ➔ Start here! This is/these are the first section(s) you will write. Results/Findings/Analysis This section may look very different depending on what kind of paper you are writing. It may consist of a synthesis of main strands of ideas and presentation of how they connect to or contrast with one another. Or it may be the result of empirical work. About 30%-40% of total length of paper This is the second section you will write, after your Literature Review and/or Background Review. Conclusions Must include: • Summary of findings/results/analysis • Implications (conceptual or policy) • Limitations • Recommendations for future research About 10 – 15% of total length of paper This is the third section you will write. Note that efficient economical writing is not sequential, that is, you will not write your paper’s sections in the order in which they will appear to the reader. For example, do not attempt to write an Abstract; leave this section blank until the very end, in your Final Version, when you have written all the other sections in your paper and it is complete. As of now, pencil in your title (and perhaps subtitle) and your key words and reassess them periodically as you progress in your work. They will acquire their definitive form only when you have a firm view of your paper’s final structure and contents. The title, 3 Assuming the Final Version of your paper is around ten pages, aim to have an Introduction of around 1.5 pages, approximately. If your Final Version turns out to be over ten pages, your Introduction does NOT need to be longer, as it will contain the same elements, regardless of paper length. Your other sections, however, may be longer. 4 key words and Abstract are the portal through which a reader is most likely to access your paper. It is, therefore, extremely important to choose effective key words and a title that is descriptive, revealing of the paper’s content, and that grabs your audience’s attention.4 Start with your Background Review (if you have one) and your Literature Review. These are important sections, and you may find that completing them takes longer that you had anticipated (they may even take the longest to complete!). The Literature Review is the core conceptual section of your paper and it is where you establish credibility with your audience (do you truly know your subject?). When you submit your Draft, you should at the very least have completed these two sections (or the Literature Review if you do not have a Background Review). Then, go on to work on your Results/Findings/Analysis section. Finally, proceed to work on your Conclusions. In your Draft, you may or may not be ready to tackle further work on your Introduction. If you are not, leave it for your Final Version. It is perfectly fine to do so. If you are not ready, just copy the elements in your Proposal (except your tentative title, of course) and that will be your Draft Introduction. In the Final Version of your Introduction, you will review these elements and include what is relevant and noteworthy in your results/findings/analysis and a brief summary of your conclusion(s). This may seem counterintuitive now but, by the end of the semester, you will see it has saved you a lot of work! Keep in mind an Introduction is a presentation of a COMPLETED work and, therefore, it makes most sense to write it once you have finished all the other sections in your paper. If you follow this sequence, you will not have to duplicate (or triplicate) your efforts by re-doing your Introduction every time you modify some other section in your paper. Note that the sections listed in the table above are a baseline: their function is to serve as a reference, so you can start thinking about the structure of your paper and the relative lengths of your sections. Keep in mind that, depending on the subject and form of your paper, the sections listed above may be different lengths and have different names. For example, if your paper is a review or survey of a particular subject, your Literature Review/Background Review will be relatively lengthier, and your section on Results/Findings/Analysis will consist of your own analysis and evaluation of the literature. You may also decide to create subsections according to the most important elements in the literature/background in your subject. Or, if your paper is empirical, you will need to add a section where you explain your methodology and another section where you describe in detail the data you are using. 4 Never promise anything your paper will not deliver! Title, key words, and Abstract must be a reliable portal. 5 Regardless of the subject and form of your paper, be organized and give it a clear and logical structure. Always make it as easy as possible for your audience to find and identify content: create sections (and subsections) with descriptive titles and never make your Draft one long essay. Do not force your audience to do your work: motivate, explain, and engage them. See the last section of this document for a list of journals with papers you can use as samples. 5 Description of First Draft Components: In your Draft, include the following components, in this same order: • Title and (perhaps) subtitle. Although you will consider the definitive version of your title last, you should try your hand at a good title. Use a subtitle, if you think you need it. The title should grab the reader’s attention and clearly reflect the main theme, issue or position in your paper. Try to reflect the true nature and focus of your work and do not create false expectations. • Abstract. Leave this element/section blank in your Draft. • Key Words. When you think of your paper, what words come up more often? How would you describe your work in a telegraphic fashion? Pencil in these words or terms and look at some sample papers (or some of your own scholarly sources) for an illustration of what these words look like. Note that one ‘key word’ may actually be two or more words. For example, ‘economic growth’ (counts as ONE key word), ‘optimal taxation’ (also ONE key word), ‘greenhouse gas emissions’ (one key word). Place your Key Words right below your (blank) Abstract in one line. Separate your key words with semi-colons. Advice: some of the key words you list should appear in the title. ➔ Place your title, your name and affiliation (SBU), (blank) Abstract, and key words in your cover page, in exactly this order. 5 Different journals place different requirements on authors and, consequently, not all papers look the same; some publishers do not require Key Words, for example (we do). However, all papers have similar structure and must contain similar elements, even if they do not receive the same name. Above all, all papers present a clear structure and descriptive section titles according to their subject. 6 • Introduction. As of now, copy the elements of your Proposal (except the tentative title) in your Introduction. Make each element a paragraph (or two at most). Wait to write the definitive version of this section until you have completed your Literature Review/Background Review, have Results/Findings/Analysis to discuss and some clear Conclusions. We are discussing it now because it may help you focus on –and keep track of– what is important as it comes up during your research, so it is easier for you to explain later. When you are ready to write the final version of your Introduction, keep in mind it should contain the following elements: ▪ Short statement of the broad theme or topic of your paper. The core issue. ▪ Your paper’s objective, the purpose of your research in your Proposal. E.g. “To investigate …,” “To determine …,” “To evaluate …,” “To compare …,” “To analyze …,” “To describe …,” “To review …,” “To discuss …,” etc. Your objective should logically flow from the core issue or question. ▪ Explain the importance of your topic. That is, give a convincing answer to the question: “Why should your audience want to read your paper?” This is the Motivation in your Proposal, except now you know more about your subject and you can present it better!6 ▪ Your main contribution and/or your results/findings/analysis. This includes the Original Contribution in your Proposal.7 ▪ Brief reference to your Methodology, also in your Proposal. ▪ Point briefly to what you think is most important in the literature, the most important controversy, gap, inconsistency, or consensus and relate it to your findings. ▪ In your last paragraph, outline the structure of the rest of the paper. As in: “In the next section I cover the most relevant literature on this subject; in Section 3, I present the main results/findings of my research; and in Section 4, I conclude and point to future directions of research on this topic.”8 6 Always keep in mind that your audience is composed of your peers and the economics faculty, not the general public. You must demonstrate competency in economic reasoning while keeping your peers interested. You must think like an economist. 7 Do not ‘cut and paste’ from other sections: organize, synthetize, and summarize what is noteworthy. This is part of your work! 8 Some writing experts will say this paragraph is not at all necessary. It is, however, common practice in scholarly economic writing and your audience will expect you to do it. It works as a Table of Contents in papers of this length. 7 • Background Review. You will include a Background Review section if you think your audience needs it to understand your subject, its importance, and your research purpose. In it, you will present your audience with necessary information about your subject (historical facts, theoretical discussions, etc.), you will give needed context, and you will frame your research purpose (or question) within this context. ➔ If you decide to include a Background Review section, this is the first section you will write. • Literature Review. All papers must have a Literature Review section: it represents the conceptual core of your paper. Its purpose is to look at the relevant ‘literature’ on your subject (i.e. what other researchers have said and done), and explain to your audience in a clear manner what the key ideas are, how they are linked, what their relative importance is, and how these ideas are supported. Also, as you work on your Literature Review, you will find it will guide and motivate your own work. This section will require you to do a lot of reading: read economically9 Keep in mind a good Literature Review does not merely summarize relevant previous research; in it you must critically evaluate, re-organize, and synthetize the work of others. As Kotzé (2007, p. 20) puts it, In a sense, compiling a literature review is like making a smoothie or a fruit shake. The end product is a condensed mix that differs totally in appearance from the individual ingredients used as inputs. The key to a successful literature review lies in your ability to “digest” information from different sources, critically evaluate it and present your conclusions in a concise, logical, and reader-friendly manner.10 See the last section of this document for a very specific and detailed description of a good Literature Review. • References. You must include a list of References, APA style, in the last page of your Draft. Check the Shunda presentation in Blackboard or follow instructions in this link to see how to cite in-text and list references: https://ggu.libguides.com/c.php?g=106881&p=694051 9 Screen potentially valuable sources and references to decide whether to read them in their entirety or not. Assess title and key words, read the Abstract and, if it seems to be what you are looking for, proceed on to the Introduction and Conclusions. If these sections confirm your interest, THEN read through the main body of the paper. Note this is also how your audience will screen your paper! 10 Kotzé, T. (2007). Guidelines on writing a first quantitative academic article. Department of Marketing and Communication Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa). Emphasis is mine. 8 Keep in mind that, although these days we all access most content online, we still must cite and list sources properly.11 Regarding your sources: ✓ Check that your list of references includes enough academic and scholarly sources (primary sources). When in doubt, consult your librarian: they are the experts. ✓ Remember you can FREELY access most (if not all) academic sources online using your account via Stony Brook libraries (check the last section of your Syllabus). In general, while you are working on your Draft, think carefully about how your choices will affect the internal coherence and quality of your final version. Be very realistic about your goals and the time you have available to work on your paper: do not be over-ambitious, narrow your focus, and set feasible goals. Your Draft should contain your main arguments and show the final structure of your paper. And, always, be as self-critical and honest as possible in your writing: say what you mean, be clear, and get to the point. You will see this makes your work easier and better! The Use of Statistical, Graphical, and Mathematical Information In order to summarize, illustrate, and support your arguments and make them more convincing, you may decide to use statistical, graphical, and mathematical information. This information will provide your audience with: • Background on your problem • Support for your claims • Tests of your hypotheses • Illustration of your arguments Information presented this way will also make your paper more appealing and readable. You can elaborate this information yourself, in which case you will have to properly format tables, figures, graphs, equations, etc. (which takes time). Or you may reproduce figures, graphs, tables, or numerical information from other studies, statistical agencies, etc. In either case, you must always cite the original 11 That is, a book chapter accessed online is still a book chapter and you must cite and reference the book chapter. See this link here on how to use a ‘digital object identifier’ or doi properly: https://library.uic.edu/help/article/1966/what-is-a-doi- and-how-do-i-use-them-in-citations. If what you are citing and referencing is ORIGINAL website content; then follow these guidelines: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html 9 source of the data you used or the visual object you reproduced, following APA guidelines.12 All visual objects (figures, graphs, tables, etc.) should be included in an appendix, placed after your Reference list. All figures, graphs, tables, etc. must be numbered and have a title. In the main body of your paper, refer to them by number, as in: “As we can see in Fig. 1, the rate of unemployment for males between the ages of 25 and 30 has been decreasing for the past ten years. [Figure 1 here] Moreover, we can see the participation rate for this same group has been increasing and blah blah blah” To be clear: in your main text, point out where the figure ought to be ([Figure 1 here]) to let your audience know, but place the figure in your appendix, properly numbered and titled, where your audience knows to look for it. Never position your objects before your text refers to them, and do not place them too far from where you are referring to them. There should be no orphan objects in your paper: if you are not going to refer to them in your text, eliminate them. Keep in mind: “The purpose of charts, tables, and other graphics is to summarize and illustrate the argument in the text. Every figure should be designed to be easily understood independently of the text.” (Greenlaw, 2006, p. 235). Titles should be self-explanatory and state the theme of the information. They should be single spaced in a 10 pt. font. As a rule, do the following: • For figures/graphs, place “Figure [Number]: [Title of figure]” at the bottom of the figure. Example: “Figure 1: Monthly US Unemployment Rates of Workers Age 16 and Older, 1948-2016.” • For tables: place “Table [Number]: [Title of table]” at the top of the table. • For equations: ‒ Assign a number only to major equations, not minor ones. Place major equations in the main body of your paper but create an appendix for lengthy proofs and demonstrations. ‒ Treat equations as part of a sentence: ▪ If an equation ends a sentence, a period (.) should follow it. ▪ If an equation is part of a clause, a comma (,) should follow it. ▪ Explain and interpret parts of any equation displayed in the main text. 12 Here is a very visual link where you can find the instructions to do it properly according to APA (scroll down to Method 2, after MLA style): http://www.wikihow.com/Cite-a-Graph-in-a-Paper 10 The information in tables, graphs, etc. is part of your argument; therefore, you need to tell your reader what the information says as well as what the information means: ▪ Do not simply refer your audience to your results and then let them do the thinking; you are the one that must draw conclusions and present them! ▪ Discuss the contents of the figure, graph or table: ‒ Interpret the information for your reader ‒ Explain what the figure or table shows ‒ Point your audience to any interesting information you want them to know ‒ Tell your audience how is the information relates to your argument and how it relates to the point you want to make In sum, make your discussion of the information such that your reader cannot help but interpret the evidence in the way that you do. Sample Papers: Have a look at the links below to find many papers you can use as samples. In the first list you will see articles published in several undergraduate peer-reviewed journals. Keep in mind requirements to publish in these journals are above what is required in this course. In the second list, you have links to some academic journals that focus on providing surveys (as in reviews) or telling us everything there is to know about one topic or issue, which is what some of you are doing. Do not spend too much time reading these articles and do not try to analyze them. Use these papers as examples. Sift through them and observe their appearance; their structure; how they are organized in sections and subsections; how descriptive their titles are; their scholarly tone and style; their logical flow; and other elements mentioned in the Guidelines. Here are a few undergraduate research journals: – The Visible Hand, http://orgsync.rso.cornell.edu/org/ces/Publication – Issues in Political Economy, https://blogs.elon.edu/ipe/ – Undergraduate Economic Review, https://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/uer/ – Stanford Undergraduate Economics Journal, https://stanfordeconjournal.com/ – The Developing Economist, http://deveco.weebly.com/ 11 And consult the most recent issues of these academic journals: ‒ Journal of Economic Perspectives (JEP), https://www.aeaweb.org/journals/jep. This journal fills the gap between the general interest press and academic economics journals. ‒ Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), https://www.aeaweb.org/journals/jel This journal is designed to help economists keep abreast of and synthesize the vast flow of literature. ‒ Journal of Economic Surveys (JES), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/14676419 More About your Literature Review13 If you are doing a survey (as in a review) of a specific issue, you need to pay particular attention to this section. Do not let its length overwhelm you: read it a few times and focus on what is useful to you. You may also want to watch Part 1 (less than 6 minutes) and Part 2 (less than 8 minutes) of this tutorial by David Taylor, of the University of Maryland:14 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IUZWZX4OGI&list=TLPQMjcwNjIwMjC7-VFF_25OtA&index=1 What a Literature Review or Background Review is: • An overview of research on a given topic and answers to related research questions • Features of such an overview: ‒ Organizes literature ‒ Evaluates literature (➔ higher-order critical thinking) ‒ Identifies patterns and trends in literature ‒ Synthesizes literature (➔ higher-order critical thinking) • An overview of what we know and of what we do not know about a given topic • Not necessarily exhaustive, but up-to-date and includes all major work on the topic • Intellectual context for your original research • Motivation for your original research ‒ Structure of review guided by your objectives ‒ Continually refers back to your thesis or research questions What a literature review is not: • A “laundry list” of everything written on a topic, where each source gets its summary paragraph ‒ Lacks organization guided by thesis or research questions ‒ Lacks synthesis of literature ‒ Lacks critical evaluation of literature • An annotated bibliography • A literary or book review 13 This section is based on a presentation by Nicholas Shunda (Univ. of Connecticut), an expert on undergraduate economic research. I found his presentation so clear and detailed that I have included a modified version of it here for your benefit. 14 Ignore the part that says “for Graduate Students.” These tutorials are applicable to any Literature Review. 12 Purpose of a Literature or Background Review • Learning about research on a given topic and answers to related research questions (➔ this means you will have to read on a topic that is broader than your subject, which is more specific and narrow) • Learning about how a body of research (or knowledge on a topic) evolved • Displaying your understanding of research on a given topic ‒ Identification of important works ‒ Points of agreement, consensus ‒ Points of disagreement, controversy ‒ Identification of areas for further research • Providing readers with the intellectual context and some motivation for your research (➔ frame the focus of your research within a wider picture) Starting a Literature Review • The necessary first step: ▪ Select a topic and formulate a few well-defined research objectives/questions ▪ Examples: ‒ Auction theory (far too broad) ‒ Research on single-unit auctions (still a bit broad) ‒ Empirical research on wholesale electricity auctions in the US (manageable) • Early back-and-forth: ▪ Select a topic and formulate a few well-defined research questions ▪ Brainstorm a list of search terms related to your topic and then search for sources ‒ Keyword searches ‒ Text/bibliographic databases ‒ Reviewing reference sections ▪ Briefly review sources and use what you learn to refine your topic and research questions • Working backwards: ‒ Begin with a collection of recent research on a given topic ‒ What authors or papers appear in the texts’ introductions, literature reviews, or references sections? • Identifying core literature, the “classics”: ‒ What authors or papers do researchers keep citing? ‒ What works do researchers identify as “classic,” “landmark,” “pioneering,” or “path-breaking?” • Search out this preceding literature • Preliminary checklist: ✓ Have I formulated a topic and well-defined set of research questions? ✓ Have I discussed my topic and research questions with a library staff member that can assist me with searching for sources? ✓ Have I carried out some early searching to learn about the topic and to help me narrow my topic and sharpen my questions? ✓ Have I talked to a faculty member about my topic, my research questions, and the results of my early searching? ✓ Have I identified the core research on the topic, the “classic” works? 13 Organizing Before Writing a Literature Review • First and foremost: ‒ “Filter” your set of sources: Review abstracts, introductions, conclusions ‒ Determine the scope of your literature review: What you will cover and what you will not cover • Prioritize among your sources: ‒ Classics” and other studies you identify as more relevant or important warrant closer reading • Key questions to answer in your reading and note-taking: 1. What is the source’s topic, research questions, methodology, and central results? (Summary) 2. How is this source related to my topic, thesis, and research questions? Does it support or contradict my thesis? (Synthesis and Organization) 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research in the source? Are there biases or flaws? How important or influential is this source? (Evaluation) 4. How is the source related to other research on the same topic? Does it employ a different methodology? Does it pertain to a different population, region, timespan? Does it work with a different data set? (Synthesis and Organization) 5. What are the points of agreement or disagreement between the source and other research on the same topic? (Synthesis) • Getting a sense of the big picture: ‒ What are the trends and themes in the literature? What are the points of consensus? What are the points of controversy? Which debates are on-going? Where does my research weigh in? ‒ What are the areas on which there is ample research? The areas that need further research? ‒ Which studies offer support for my thesis? Which studies contradict my thesis? ‒ Where does my research fit into the larger literature on the topic? • Checklist for notes on each source: ✓ Full citation information ✓ What is the author’s discipline and credentials? ✓ What is the topic? What are the research questions? ✓ What is the methodology employed? Theoretical framework? Empirical framework? ✓ What are the study’s main results? What are the answers to the research questions? ✓ What are the strengths and limitations of the study? ✓ How is the study related to other research on the same topic? Writing a Literature Review • Elements of the introduction: ‒ Statement of thesis and/or research questions ‒ Motivation for and importance of the research ‒ Statement of scope of literature review: Note your selection criteria for the review ‒ Hint of how you will organize the literature and your discussion of it • Potential organizing principles: ‒ Methodology: Theoretical perspective, empirical framework ‒ Studies that agree with one another ‒ Studies that disagree with one another ‒ Extent of support for your thesis ‒ Regional focus ‒ Data range, sample ‒ Chronological 14 • Tip: Organize studies according to “common denominators” • Musts for your writing: ‒ Linkage I: Continually link your discussion of the literature back to your thesis and research questions ‒ Linkage II: Link studies to one another; stress relatedness of research on your topic ‒ Prioritize/Classics: Identify “classic” studies and discuss them accordingly (i.e., with more detail, and with an eye for their influence) ‒ Evaluate/Gaps: Identify shortcomings of particular studies and/or the body of research as a whole; be critical! ‒ Frontier: Identify areas for further research; where can research on your topic go from here? • Mechanics of writing: ▪ Audience: ‒ Scholarly, but avoid jargon ‒ Wants to know about literature ‒ Wants to know what you have to say about the literature ‒ Wants to know where your research fits ▪ Short paragraphs can help to keep writing crisp ▪ Subheadings can help to clarify structure of review (for full-length literature reviews or surveys) ▪ Use direct quotations sparingly; paraphrase studies ▪ Prioritize studies in the literature: ‒ Signal importance by discussing relatively more important studies with more detail ‒ Signal importance by noting influence on subsequent studies • Rhetorical moves: ‒ Similarity: also, again, in addition to, additionally, similar to, similarly, alike, like, agrees with ‒ Disagreement: contradicts, counter, opposite, differs, debate, at odds, on the other hand, disagree, disagrees with ‒ Evaluation: classic, pioneering, important, influential, lacks, fails to consider, ignores, overlooks, limited by/to, confined to, restricts attention to • Writing checklist: did I ✓ include a clear statement of my topic’s importance, the research questions I am seeking to answer, and my thesis? ✓ include a clear statement of the scope of my literature review and what criteria I used for including studies in it? ✓ identify the “classic” works on my topic and give them priority in my discussion of the literature? ✓ summarize the studies and link them to one another as well as back to my thesis and research questions? ✓ critically evaluate the literature, identifying its limitations and areas where further research is needed? Conclusion: A Literature Review is • An overview of research on a given topic and answers to related research questions • An important part of research and should be treated as such • Well-written if it: ‒ Organizes literature ‒ Evaluates literature ‒ Identifies patterns and trends in literature ‒ Synthesizes literature

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