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SEMESTER 1 January 2020 Examination CS430 Advanced Concepts and Issues in Computer Science 1 Dr. C. Hayes, Dr J. Timoney, Dr. E. Galvan, Prof. B. Pearlmutter, Dr. D. O’Donoghue, Dr. P Maguire. Time allowed: 2 hours Answer at least three questions Your mark will be based on your best three answers All questions carry equal marks Instructions Yes No Log Books Allowed  Formula Tables Allowed  Other Allowed (enter details)  All questions c General (enter details) [25marks] 1. a) Tree-based Genetic Programming (GP) i. Draw a diagram that shows how the following equation max (y * y, x + 10 * x) is represented as a tree-based GP program ii. Write the terminals and functions used in (i) iii. Explain how the grow, full and ramped half-and-half initialisation methods work in tree-based GP iv. Suppose that we define the function set as f={f1,f2,f3,f4} and the terminal set is defined as t={t1,t2,t3,t4,t5,t6} to solve a particular problem. To solve this problem, GP needs to use all of them (function set and terminal set). However, none of the GP individuals uses the last defined function (f4). What genetic operator is necessary to, potentially, fix this issue? Draw a diagram that shows two variants of this operator. [16 marks] b) Heuristics i. What is the main difference between an algorithm and a heuristic? ii. Write the pseudocode corresponding to a heuristic seen during lectures that promotes exploration only and briefly explain its elements. How would you modify it to make it less explorative? iii. Briefly explain how Tabu search works and how would you modify it so that it can work in continuous spaces? [9 marks] CS430 Page 1 of 3 January 2020 CS430 Page 2 of 3 January 2020 [25marks] 2. Answer *either* Part (a) or Part (b), but not both. a) Design, describe, and analyze the resource consumption and error rate of a streaming algorithm that accepts an input stream, and produces and an output stream consisting only of unique elements of the input stream. *** or else *** [25 marks] b) BRIEFLY speculate as to what computing will look like 30 years from now, grounding your speculations in history. [25 marks] [25marks] 3. a) List and briefly describe each of Boden’s three levels of creativity? Briefly discuss the spatial metaphor underlying this view of creativity. [5 marks] b) Describe each of the following terms as used in relation to Computational Creativity. Highlight any significant differences between the paired items. Use suitable examples to illustrate your answer. i) P-Creativity and H-Creativity, ii) Novelty and Quality(Usefulness) [5 marks] c) What is the computational basis for any creativity evident in image processing systems such as Google’s DeepDream and similar projects? [5 marks] d) What is an analogy? What is the computational basis for considering analogy models to be creative? Make use of an example to illustrate your answer. [5 mark]s e) What is a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)? Explain how they work, using examples for illustration. In what way might we think of a GAN as creative? [5 marks] CS430 Page 3 of 3 January 2020 [25marks] 4. a) Describe in detail the concept of ‘blockchain’ as invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. In your answer you should explain how hash functions enable blockchain. [9 marks] b) Ethereum was launched by Vitalik Buterin in 2015. Explain the differences between Bitcoin and Ethereum. In your answer you should explain the concept of smart contracts and how they are implemented in Solidity. [8 marks] c) Explain, from an algorithmic point of view, why it is extremely unlikely for Bitcoin to hit $100,000 in 2020, yet feasible that it could reach this level by 2030. [4 marks] d) Government and banks around the world are alarmed by the imminent launch of Facebook’s Libra. Mark Zuckerberg has had to testify to the US Congress to address their concerns. Why are they so worried? [4 marks] 欢迎咨询51作业君


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