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By February 11, 2021留学咨询

Team Computing – Sensors + Motor Control TU857/1 Semester 2 2021 Lecturer: Dr. Cathy Ennis Email: [email protected] Credits • This course is based on material developed by : • Cathy Ennis • Dr. Paul Doyle • Material from other sources is also used (citations included) 2 Overview • Recap / Feedback • Control Loops • Sensors 3 Learning Outcomes • Explain and compare different approaches to robot control • List the difficulties facing the development of hardware-based real- time software systems • Demonstrate the ability to implement software to run on a specific hardware base, for example a robot • Demonstrate an ability to work productively in a team 4 Lab Feedback • What was easy? • What did you learn? • What was hard? Introduction • The ability to use sensor feedback to govern its own behaviour is what sets a robot apart from other machines • What type of control structure uses sensor feedback? • Closed Loop Language Reference Guide • EV3 RobotC • Use this link to see all of the possible commands for RobotC Open vs. Closed Loops • An open-loop controller (or non-feedback controller) is a type of controller which computes its input into a system using only the current state and its model of the system • The system does not observe the output of the processes that it is controlling • Open-loop control is useful for well-defined systems where the relationship between input and the resultant state can be modeled by a mathematical formula Open vs. Closed Loops • An open-loop controller is often used in simple processes because of its simplicity and low-cost, especially in systems where feedback is not critical • Generally, to obtain a more accurate or more adaptive control, it is necessary to feed the output of the system back to the inputs of the controller Open vs. Closed Loops • A closed-loop controller uses feedback to control states or outputs of a dynamical system • Process inputs have an effect on the process outputs, which is measured with sensors and processed by the controller; the result is used as input to the process, closing the loop Open vs. Closed Loops Closed-loop controllers have the following advantages over open-loop controllers: 1. Disturbance rejection (such as unmeasured friction in a motor) 2. Guaranteed performance even with model uncertainties, when the model structure does not match perfectly the real process and the model parameters are not exact 3. Unstable processes can be stabilized 4. Reduced sensitivity to parameter variations 5. Improved reference tracking performance Using EV3 Sensors The EV3 Robot comes with four sensors: • Touch • Ultrasonic • Light • Gyro Introduction • So far we have learned how to make the robot move without sensing its environment (using PID): • How to make it go forward and backward for specific lengths of time • Now we want to identify obstacles by touching or by ultrasonic • Become more “aware” of its environment • We can do more with sensors Categories of Sensors Categories of Sensors Sensor Performance – Basic Sensor Ratings: • Range: Difference between min and max • Resolution: Minimum difference between two values that can be detected by a sensor • Bandwidth or frequency: • The speed with which a sensor can provide a stream of readings • The number of measurements per second is defined as the sensor’s frequency in hertz • Because of the dynamics of moving through their environment, mobile robots often are limited in maximum speed by the bandwidth of their obstacle detection sensors Sensor Performance • Measurement in real world environment is error prone • Useful terminology when discussing sensor error: • Cross-Sensitivity: Sensitivity to environmental parameters that are orthogonal to the target parameters • E.G.: A compass will be sensitive to both the Earth’s magnetic field and to ferrous building materials • Error/Accuracy: Difference between the sensor’s output and the true value • Precision: Reproducibility of sensor results Sensor Performance • Systematic/Deterministic Error: Caused by factors that can (in theory) be modelled • E.G.: calibration of a laser sensor • Random/Non-Deterministic Error: No prediction possible • E.G.: Hue instability of camera, black level noise of camera EV3 Sensors • The EV3 Robot comes with two type of proprioceptive sensor: each of the Servo Motors that give your robot the ability to move have a built-in Rotation Sensor • The Rotation Sensor measures motor rotations in degrees or full rotations [accuracy of +/- one degree] • One rotation is equal to 360 degrees, so if you set a motor to turn 180 degrees, its output shaft will make half a turn • There is also a gyro sensor – can measure the robot’s rotational motion and changes in its orientation EV3 Sensors • The EV3 Robot comes with three exteroceptive sensors: Touch Sensor • The Touch Sensor gives your robot a sense of touch • The Touch Sensor detects when it is being pressed by something and when it is released again Ultrasonic Sensor • The Ultrasonic Sensor enables your robot to see and detect objects • Use it to make your robot avoid obstacles, sense and measure distance, and detect movement Ultrasonic Sensor • The Ultrasonic Sensor measures distance in centimeters and in inches • It is able to measure distances from 0 to 255 centimeters with a precision of +/- 3 cm Ultrasonic Sensor • The Ultrasonic Sensor uses the same scientific principle as bats: • It measures distance by calculating the time it takes for a sound wave to hit an object and return, just like an echo Ultrasonic Sensor • Large sized objects with hard surfaces return the best readings. Objects made of soft fabric or that are curved [like a ball] or are very thin or small can be difficult for the sensor to detect • Note: two or more Ultrasonic Sensors operating in the same room may interrupt each others readings Using EV3 Sensors • Over the next few labs we will find out how to use each of these sensors • However, before you access the information from these sensors you need to configure the sensors to run in your program • Today, we’re going to see how to do this Touch Sensor Bump Sensor • Detects: Physical Contact • Feedback: • Typical Use: Bumper • While (SensorValue(touchSensor) == 0 ) • (Will run the while() look as long as the touch sensor is not pressed) 0 if not pressed, 1 if pressed Configuring Sensor Names in RobotC Defining names for sensors Sensor names we can now reference Using EV3 Touch Sensors Configuring Sensors in Simulator Ultrasonic Sensor Ultrasonic Sensor • Detects: Distance to Object • Feedback: • Typical Use: Obstacle detection & avoidance • While (SensorValue(sonarSensor) >25) • (Will run the while() look as long as there is no object detected within 25cm) RANGE in cms (1-250) Ultrasonic Sensor Using EV3 Ultrasonic Sensors Controlling Sensor Readings Ultrasonic Sensor • The value returned by the sensor type can be different • Sonar is value in CM 1 – 250 • Bump is 0 or 1 Ultrasonic Sensor SENSOR DETECTS SURFACE AND STOPS 25CM BEFORE IT Touch Sensor – Lab Motor Control using degrees of rotation Motor Encoding Syncing Motors and Motor Encoder LAB Overview • Students work in teams and submit a single GIT REPO for their work covering part B of the Lab • Code should be commented and well structured • The quiz/Part A may take longer that the allocated lab time, so students can complete them outside of labs • Additional resource links will be provided to help students who are struggling with the material • You must demo all of your coding tasks in order to get marks for your work. All team members must be present at the demo • Reference ROBOTC for EV3 for additional help on commands Part A • Clone a starting REPO from LAB3, it contains a list of useful programs for you to review for this lab • Create a new LAB3 subdirectory • Complete the TRUE/FALSE questions • Identify the errors in the code listing provided Part B • Write a new program teamcomputing/lab3/EncoderSync.c
which USES PID control and implements the functions below using just the SetMotorSyncEncoder command. Distance should be measured in CM • void drive(long nMotorRatio, long dist, long power) • void turn90(long nMotorRatio, long power) • Using only calls to these functions write a program that makes the robot a) Go in a square with a perimeter of 200cm and return to original position (random direction) b) Go forward for 100cm at 100%power, then do 180degree spin and at return to original position at 25% power Part B • Complete the challenge in Diagram 1. The challenge is to show that the same program can start from position 1a, 1b, or 1c and arrive at the same location position 5 without changing the code • Start at position (1a, 1b, 1c) • Go forward until the Lego robot box is detected, then turn left. • Travel forward until you reach the edge of the table then turn left • Travel forward until you reach a book then turn left • Travel forward for 30cm then stop. • You should use both bump sensor and the ultrasonic sensor and motor encoding Challenge 1 • You can build the set of obstacles using the Playfield -> Maze/Lines function in QEV3BotSim. Part B • Write a new program teamcomputing/lab3/ButtonEncoderSync.c which the Lego BUTTONS to set a distance for the robot to travel. Distance should be measured in CM. • You should be able to select a distance of 10, 40, 60, 80cm • Once selected the robot will the travel the distance at a random speed 欢迎咨询51作业君


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