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辅导案例-CS 444/544

By May 15, 2020留学咨询

CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 1 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney Please read this entire assignment, every word, before you start working on the code. There might be some things in here that make it easier to complete. This lab is October 9th by midnight. Submit a single gzipped tar file to TEACH. Submitting your solution before October 9th will earn you a 10% bonus. If your submission is not a gzipped tar file, I will not grade your assignment. Your code must run on the EECS Linux server os2. If it does not run on os2, it will be graded as a zero. This lab is worth 250 points. Heap management – beavalloc You know you’ve been wanting to do this, so finally, here is your opportunity. Write you own malloc package. You are going to call it beavalloc() and beavfree(). Those are the basic functions. You also need to implement beavcalloc() and beavrealloc(), but those are implemented using beavalloc() (with some extra code). Your code must not make any use of any of the library malloc() functions. You can use brk() and sbrk() for requesting or returning portions of the heap. In fact, you must use brk() and sbrk(). You will manage the memory that is allocated. You may notice this line in the man page for brk()/sbrk(): Avoid using brk() and sbrk(): the malloc(3) memory allocation package is the portable and comfortable way of allocating memory. Ha!!! As an accomplished C programmer and kernel hacker, you are empowered to use brk() and sbrk() to write your own comfortable heap manager. There are a lot of various examples of malloc() source code out there. I encourage you to not rely on those and learn this on your own. Your implementation of beavalloc() (and the other functions) must be done in a file called beavalloc.c. You must put your main() in a separate file. I’ll provide you with a main() that calls a number tests for your beavealloc() functions. I have provided a file beavalloc.h, read the comments in that file. You must have a Makefile that builds your project. I have placed a sample Makefile, the beavalloc.h file, and sample main.c in the following directory on flip/os[12]: ~chaneyr/Classes/cs444/Labs/Lab2 CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 2 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney Do not make changes to the beavalloc.h file. Do what you will with the Makefile, just don’t hurt my feelings. Do not remove any of the flags for gcc (CFLAGS). I expect to build the beavalloc program by using the following two commands: make clean make all Be sure to test your code. The main.c file has a few tests in it. Run all the tests and check to make sure the output is correct. Just because your code does not seg-fault, it does not mean the code correctly operates. The tests can either be run all at once or individually. I recommend you run them individually; it makes them easier to validate. You can use whatever data structure to manage the heap you like. I decided to use a doubly- linked list. It worked very well for me. I would say that it is he most space or time efficient, but that is not the objective. This is not an exercise to see if you can develop the fastest or most compact malloc() replacement. Many people have spent years working on that; you don’t need to. This is a simple 1-week assignment; don’t make it more than that. Functions you need to write are: void *beavalloc(size_t size); The basic memory allocator. If you pass NULL or 0, then NULL is returned. If, for some reason, the system cannot allocate the requested memory, set the errno global variable to ENOMEM and return NULL. You must use sbrk() or brk() in requesting more memory for your beavalloc() functions to manage. When calling sbrk() for more memory, always request 1024 bytes. It is best if you use a macro for this value, in case it needs to change. Making kernel calls is expensive, so we want to minimize them. Notice that the parameter type is size_t, which is unsigned. If you happen to pass a negative value, odd things may occur. When beavalloc() is called, only call sbrk() to request more memory form the kernel when there is not enough space in the currently allocated space to accommodate it. You must be able split existing blocks within the allocated space. If an existing block can be split to hold a new request, split it and use it. Correctly splitting blocks is probably the second most challenging portion of the project. You will be using a first-fit algorithm. First-fit algorithm – when receiving a request for memory, scan along the list for the first block that is large enough to satisfy the request. If the chosen block is significantly larger than that requested, then it is split, and the remainder added to the list as another free block. CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 3 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney void beavfree(void *ptr); A pointer returned from a previous call to beavalloc() must be passed. If a pointer is passed to a block than is already free, simply return. If NULL is passed, just return. Blocks must be coalesced, when possible, as they are free’ed. Correctly coalescing may be the most challenging portion of this project. void beavalloc_reset(void); Completely reset your heap back to zero bytes allocated. You are going to like being able to do this. Implementation can be done in as few as a single line of C code, though you will probably use more to clean up some variables and reset any stats you keep about heap. The only time you actually give memory back to the OS is when you make this call. A call to beavfree() will only mark the space available for reuse. After you’ve called this function, everything you had in the heap is just __GONE__!!! You should be able to call beavalloc() after calling beavalloc_reset() to restart building the heap again. void beavalloc_set_verbose(uint8_t); I like to have the ability to enable and disable runtime diagnostic messages. A call of beavalloc_set_verbose( TRUE ); will enable runtime diagnostic messages. A call of beavalloc_set_verbose( FALSE ); will disable runtime diagnostic messages. All runtime diagnostic messages must go to stderr, not stdout. void *beavcalloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size); This function should perform exactly as the regular call to calloc() would perform. You can read the man page to see what it does. If nmemb or size is 0, then beavcalloc() returns NULL. Make use of your beavalloc(); don’t reinvent anything for this. Consider the memset() function. void *beavrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size); This function should perform exactly as the regular call to realloc(). You can read the man page to see what it does. If size is NULL, return NULL. Consider the memcpy() or memmove() functions. When this function is called with NULL, it means the pointer has never been allocated. Since this we expect the memory block size to change (likely upward, this is realloc() after all), when the ptr is NULL, actually allocate 2 times the size passed as a parameter. void beavalloc_dump(uint leaks_only); This is the function you must use to display the contents of your heap. It is a large and messy function. I understand that you may need to make a few adjustments to it so that it will work with your data structures. However, make CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 4 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney as few as possible and DO NOT remove any of the columns of data shown in the original implementation. A longer description of the output from the beavalloc_dump() is shown in an addendum on page 5. This function can be found in the file beavalloc_dump.c. I recommend you copy it into your beavalloc.c module. Look in the beavalloc.h file for declarations of the above functions. Below is a raw plan on how you can proceed. This plan is basic and not required, but it is pretty much how I worked through the project. 1. Start your Makefile. Initiate revision control. 2. When beavalloc() is called, just call sbrk() for the new space. Place that new space into your data structures to manage the space. Don’t worry about the other calls for now. Check your code into revision control. 3. Make sure beavaalloc_reset() works
and deallocates all space previously allocated using sbrk(). This will probably be a lot easier than you think. Consider doing a little brk() dancing for this. A static variable within your beavalloc.c file could make this really easy. Check your code into revision control. 4. When beavefree() is called, set the block as free/unused in your data structures. Check your code into revision control. 5. Split blocks that are large enough when memory is requested. Check your code into revision control. 6. Coalesce blocks when adjacent blocks are free-ed. Check your code into revision control. 7. Implement beavcalloc(). This is pretty simple. Check your code into revision control. 8. Implement beavrealloc(). Slightly more involved that beavcalloc(). Check your code into revision control. 9. Make sure all the tests work. Just because a test does not seg-fault does not mean the test ran correctly. Break out a calculator and make sure things add up. Most computer- based calculators have a “programmer” mode that will allow you to calculate the hex addresses. I know both Mac and Windows have this feature in the calculator. Check your code into revision control. 10. Celebrate. This was my favorite step. I recommend you make use of the assert() statement in your code. You can see some examples of it in the testing code I provide and by looking at the man page. Remember, testing is good. You must use the following gcc command line options (with gcc as your compiler) in your Makefile when compiling your code. -g -Wall CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 5 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney -Wshadow -Wunreachable-code -Wredundant-decls -Wmissing-declarations -Wold-style-definition -Wmissing-prototypes -Wdeclaration-after-statement Be sure your code does not generate any errors or warnings when compiled. Hunt down and fix all warnings in your code. You may not use any `std=…` command line options for gcc. Just use the default standard, i.e. c90. For a comparison, my beavalloc.c file contains less than 500 lines of code. I have some comments and some extra things in there taking up space. You don’t have to (completely) write the beavalloc_dump() function. All in all, it is not a huge chunk of code. Final note The labs in this course are intended to give you basic skills. In later labs, we will assume that you have mastered the skills introduced in earlier labs. If you don’t understand, ask questions. Addendum – Format of the beavalloc_dump() output. Below is an example of running my code on test 5 from the suite of tests. The heap map consists of several columns of data. The beavalloc_dump() function has 2 purposes: 1) help grade the assignment, 2) help debug the assignment. The columns in the output are: blk no: I start numbering the blocks managed by beacalloc() from zero, so the initial block number is block 0. For me, this is the start of the doubly-linked list I use to manage the heap. It is also the address of the beginning of the heap. block add: this is the beginning address of a block beavalloc() is managing in the heap. For me, it is the beginning of an instance of the structure in my doubly-linked list. This address is shown as hex. next add: the doubly-linked list I use contains 2 pointers for the previous and next elements in the list. This is the address of the next element. If the next address is (nil), it means that it is the head of the list. This address is shown as hex. prev add: the doubly-linked list I use contains 2 pointers for the previous and next elements in the list. This is the address of the previous element. If the previous address is (nil), it means that it is the end of the list. This address is shown as hex. data add: in my list element data structure, I keep a pointer to where the data for the block begins. This is that pointer; it is a little wasteful to keep this around as a pointer. This address is shown as hex. blk off: this is the offset (in decimal) where the block begins from the beginning of the heap. CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 6 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney dat off: this is the offset (in decimal) where the data begins from the beginning of the heap. capacity: this represents the total number of data bytes available in the block (in decimal). Some or even most of the bytes may not be used. See the size column below. size: this represents the number of data bytes (in decimal) requested by the user’s call to beavalloc(). This is the number of bytes the user can use in the block. If the user goes beyond size bytes, then they have actually gone out of bounds of their allocation. The block may have a capacity larger than the size. The additional bytes could be used in a call to beavrealloc() or the block could be split (if large enough). blk size: the total number of bytes used by the block (in decimal). This will be the sum of the capacity and the size of the data structure used to manage the heap. status: this simply represents whether a block is currently in use (allocated to the user) or is free (awaiting reuse). The row of data below the per block information shows (in decimal) the total number of bytes of data capacity that are currently allocated, the total number of bytes the user currently has in use, and the total number of bytes are allocated in the heap. The final line in the output from beavalloc_dump() shows: how many blocks are allocated to the user, how many block are marked as free, what is the address of the beginning of the heap is (Min heap), and what the address of the end of the heap is (Max heap). CS 444/544 Lab 2 Fall 2019 Page 7 of 7 R. Jesse Chaney % ./beavalloc -t 5 beavalloc tests starting running only test 5 base: 0x12b3000 *** Begin 5 5 allocs 3 frees ptr1 : 0x12b3030 ptr2 : 0x12b3430 ptr3 : 0x12b3830 ptr4 : 0x12b3c30 ptr5 : 0x12b4030 heap map blk no block add next add prev add data add blk off dat off capacity size blk size status 0 0x12b3000 0x12b3400 (nil) 0x12b3030 0 48 976 510 1024 in use 1 0x12b3400 0x12b3800 0x12b3000 0x12b3430 1024 1072 976 530 1024 in use 2 0x12b3800 0x12b3c00 0x12b3400 0x12b3830 2048 2096 976 550 1024 in use 3 0x12b3c00 0x12b4000 0x12b3800 0x12b3c30 3072 3120 976 570 1024 in use 4 0x12b4000 (nil) 0x12b3c00 0x12b4030 4096 4144 976 590 1024 in use Total bytes used 4880 2750 5120 Used blocks: 5 Free blocks: 0 Min he ap: 0x12b3000 Max heap: 0x12b4400 heap map blk no block add next add prev add data add blk off dat off capacity size blk size status 0 0x12b3000 0x12b3400 (nil) 0x12b3030 0 48 976 510 1024 free * 1 0x12b3400 0x12b3800 0x12b3000 0x12b3430 1024 1072 976 530 1024 in use 2 0x12b3800 0x12b3c00 0x12b3400 0x12b3830 2048 2096 976 550 1024 free * 3 0x12b3c00 0x12b4000 0x12b3800 0x12b3c30 3072 3120 976 570 1024 in use 4 0x12b4000 (nil) 0x12b3c00 0x12b4030 4096 4144 976 590 1024 free * Total bytes used 4880 2750 5120 Used blocks: 2 Free blocks: 3 Min heap: 0x12b3000 Max heap: 0x12b4400 *** End 5 WoooooooHooooooo!!! You survived test 5. Make sure it is correct.

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